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The Impact of Child Labor and School Quality on Academic Achievement in Brazil

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Author Info

  • Bezerra, Márcio Eduardo G.

    (University of Sao Paulo)

  • Kassouf, Ana Lucia

    ()
    (University of Sao Paulo)

  • Arends-Kuenning, Mary P.

    ()
    (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

Abstract

We analyze the impact of child labor on school achievement using Brazilian school achievement test data from the 2003 Sistema Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Básica (SAEB). We control for the endogeneity of child labor using instrumental variable techniques, where the instrumental variable is the average wage for unskilled male labor in the state. Using our preferred OLS estimates, we find that child labor causes a loss in students' school achievement. Children and adolescents who do not work have better school performance than students who work. Up to two hours of work per day do not have a statistically significant effect on school performance, but additional hours decrease student's achievement. Differences in work conditions affect school performance. For high school students in Portuguese, compared to students who have schooling as their only activity, students who work only at home score 4 percent lower on the tests. Those students who only work outside the house are worse off than those who only work within the house, with test scores decreasing by 5 percent. Students who work both inside and outside the house have the lowest test scores of all the working conditions, decreasing by up to 7 percent.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4062.

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Length: 47 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4062

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Keywords: child labor; school achievement; Brazil;

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References

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  1. Patrick M. Emerson & Andre Portela Souza, 2002. "Bargaining over Sons and Daughters: Child Labor, School Attendance and Intra-Household Gender Bias in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0213, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  2. Basu, Kaushik, 1998. "Child labor : cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on International Labor Standards," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2027, The World Bank.
  3. Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 27872, The World Bank.
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  6. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
  7. Orazem, Peter F & Gunnarsson, Victoria, 2003. "Child labour, school attendance and academic performance : a review," ILO Working Papers, International Labour Organization 366541, International Labour Organization.
  8. Gunnarsson, Victoria & Orazem, Peter & Sanchez, Mario A., 2003. "Child Labor and School Achievement in Latin America," Staff General Research Papers 10684, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  9. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
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  11. Furio Camillo Rosati & Mariacristina Rossi, 2003. "Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 283-295, December.
  12. Ana Lúcia Kassouf, 2001. "Trabalho infantil: escolaridade x emprego," Economia, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics], vol. 2(2), pages 549-586, July-Dece.
  13. Hideo Akabayashi & George Psacharopoulos, 1999. "The trade-off between child labour and human capital formation: A Tanzanian case study," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(5), pages 120-140.
  14. Paul Glewwe, 2002. "Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 436-482, June.
  15. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
  16. Basu, Kaushik & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 2003. "The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We Do?," Working Papers 03-06, Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics.
  17. Emerson, Patrick M. & Souza, André Portela, 2008. "Birth Order, Child Labor, and School Attendance in Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 1647-1664, September.
  18. Glewwe, Paul & Jacoby, Hanan G., 2004. "Economic growth and the demand for education: is there a wealth effect?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 33-51, June.
  19. Fernanda Cabral Santos & André Portela Fernandes de Souza, 2007. "A Redução Do Trabalho Infantil E O Aumento Da Freqüência Escolar Na Década De 90 No Brasil," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting], ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Gr 129, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  20. Heady, Christopher, 2003. "The Effect of Child Labor on Learning Achievement," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 385-398, February.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Emerson, Patrick M. & Ponczek, Vladimir & Portela Souza, André, 2013. "Child Labor and Learning," IZA Discussion Papers 7578, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. L. Guarcello & S. Lyon, 2003. "Children's work and water access in Yemen," UCW Working Paper 53, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  3. Beegle, Kathleen & Dehejia, Rajeev H. & Gatti, Roberta & Krutikova, Sofya, 2008. "The consequences of child labor : evidence from longitudinal data in rural Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4677, The World Bank.

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