Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Female Labor Supply Differences by Sexual Orientation: A Semi-Parametric Decomposition Approach

Contents:

Author Info

  • Antecol, Heather

    ()
    (Claremont McKenna College)

  • Steinberger, Michael D.

    ()
    (Pomona College)

Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    Using 2000 U.S. Census data we illustrate the importance of accounting for household specialization in lesbian couples when examining the sexual orientation gap in female labor supply. Specifically, we find the labor supply gap is substantially larger between married women and partnered lesbian women who specialize in market production (primary earners) than between married women and partnered lesbian women who specialize in household production (secondary earners). Using a semi-parametric decomposition approach, we further show that the role of children in explaining the mean labor supply gap by sexual orientation is greatly understated if the household division of labor between household and market production is not taken into account. Finally, we illustrate that controlling for children significantly reduces differences between married women and secondary lesbian earners both in terms of the decision to remain attached to the labor market (the extensive margin), as well as in terms of annual hours of work conditional on working (the intensive margin). Further, the effect of controlling for children is not uniform across the distribution of conditional annual hours; instead it primarily reduces the percentage of secondary lesbian earners working extremely high annual hours.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp4029.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4029.

    as in new window
    Length: 44 pages
    Date of creation: Feb 2009
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: published as 'Labor Supply Differences between Married Heterosexual Women and Partnered Lesbians: A Semi-Parametric Decomposition Approach' in: Economic Inquiry, 2010, [Early View]
    Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4029

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
    Phone: +49 228 3894 223
    Fax: +49 228 3894 180
    Web page: http://www.iza.org

    Order Information:
    Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
    Email:

    Related research

    Keywords: female labor supply; household specialization; sexual orientation;

    Find related papers by JEL classification:

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Richard Blundell & Alan Duncan & Costas Meghir, 1995. "Estimating labour supply responses using tax reforms," IFS Working Papers, Institute for Fiscal Studies W95/07, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    2. Alice Nakamura & Masao Nakamura, 1994. "Predicting Female Labor Supply: Effects of Children and Recent Work Experience," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 304-327.
    3. Nidardo, J. & Fortin, N. & Lemieux, T., 1994. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," Papers, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences 93-94-15, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
    4. Joshua D. Angrist & William N. Evans, 1996. "Children and Their Parents' Labor Supply: Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Family Size," NBER Working Papers 5778, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Kermit Daniel, . "Does Marriage Make Men More Productive?," University of Chicago - Population Research Center, Chicago - Population Research Center 92-2, Chicago - Population Research Center.
    6. Thomas Mroz, . "The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions," University of Chicago - Population Research Center, Chicago - Population Research Center 84-8, Chicago - Population Research Center.
    7. Leslie S. Stratton, 2002. "Examining the Wage Differential for Married and Cohabiting Men," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, Western Economic Association International, vol. 40(2), pages 199-212, April.
    8. Edinaldo Tebaldi & Bruce Elmslie, 2006. "Sexual orientation and labour supply," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(5), pages 549-562.
    9. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2007. "Changes in the Labor Supply Behavior of Married Women: 1980–2000," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25, pages 393-438.
    10. Charlene M. Kalenkoski & David C. Ribar & Leslie S. Stratton, 2005. "Parental Child Care in Single-Parent, Cohabiting, and Married-Couple Families: Time-Diary Evidence from the United Kingdom," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 194-198, May.
    11. Dan A. Black & Seth G. Sanders & Lowell J. Taylor, 2007. "The Economics of Lesbian and Gay Families," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 53-70, Spring.
    12. M. V. Lee Badgett, 1995. "The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 726-739, July.
    13. Elena Bardasi & Mark Taylor, 2008. "Marriage and Wages: A Test of the Specialization Hypothesis," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 75(299), pages 569-591, 08.
    14. Shelly Lundberg & Elaina Rose, 2002. "The Effects Of Sons And Daughters On Men'S Labor Supply And Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 251-268, May.
    15. Karen Leppel, 2009. "Labour Force Status and Sexual Orientation," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 76(301), pages 197-207, 02.
    16. Jeffrey S. Gray, 1997. "The Fall in Men's Return to Marriage: Declining Productivity Effects or Changing Selection?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(3), pages 481-504.
    17. Joshua Angrist, 1988. "Grouped Data Estimation and Testing in Simple Labor Supply Models," Working Papers, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section. 614, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    18. John M. Blandford, 2003. "The nexus of sexual orientation and gender in the determination of earnings," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(4), pages 622-642, July.
    19. Paul J. Devereux, 2004. "Changes in Relative Wages and Family Labor Supply," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(3).
    20. Betsey Stevenson, 2006. "The impact of divorce laws on marriage-specific capital," Working Paper Series, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 2006-43, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    21. Kalenkoski, Charlene M. & Ribar, David C. & Stratton, Leslie S., 2006. "The Effect of Family Structure on Parents' Child Care Time in the United States and the United Kingdom," IZA Discussion Papers 2441, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    22. Blundell, Richard & Macurdy, Thomas, 1999. "Labor supply: A review of alternative approaches," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 27, pages 1559-1695 Elsevier.
    23. Bronars, Stephen G & Grogger, Jeff, 1994. "The Economic Consequences of Unwed Motherhood: Using Twin Births as a Natural Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1141-56, December.
    24. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    25. Marieka M. Klawitter & Victor Flatt, 1998. "The effects of state and local antidiscrimination policies on earnings for gays and lesbians," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 658-686.
    26. Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-75, September.
    27. M. V. Lee Badgett, 1995. "Gender, sexuality, and sexual orientation: All in the feminist family?," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 121-139.
    28. Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S33-58, January.
    29. Dan A. Black & Hoda R. Makar & Seth G. Sanders & Lowell J. Taylor, 2003. "The earnings effects of sexual orientation," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(3), pages 449-469, April.
    30. Suzanne Heller Clain & Karen Leppel, 2001. "An investigation into sexual orientation discrimination as an explanation for wage differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 37-47.
    31. Joni Hersch & Leslie S. Stratton, 2000. "Household specialization and the male marriage wage premium," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(1), pages 78-94, October.
    32. Jacob Mincer, 1962. "Labor Force Participation of Married Women: A Study of Labor Supply," NBER Chapters, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, in: Aspects of Labor Economics, pages 63-106 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    33. Kenny, Lawrence W, 1983. "The Accumulation of Human Capital during Marriage by Males," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, Western Economic Association International, vol. 21(2), pages 223-31, April.
    34. Nathan Berg & Donald Lien, 2002. "Measuring The Effect Of Sexual Orientation On Income: Evidence Of Discrimination?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, Western Economic Association International, vol. 20(4), pages 394-414, October.
    35. Eng Seng Loh, 1996. "Productivity Differences and the Marriage Wage Premium for White Males," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(3), pages 566-589.
    36. Heather Antecol & Anneke Jong & Michael D. Steinberger, 2008. "The Sexual Orientation Wage Gap: The Role of Occupational Sorting and Human Capital," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 61(4), pages 518-543, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Negrusa, Brighita & Oreffice, Sonia, 2010. "Sexual Orientation and Household Savings: Do Homosexual Couples Save More?," IZA Discussion Papers 4961, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4029. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.