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The Transmission of Women's Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation across Immigrant Generations

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Author Info

  • Blau, Francine D.

    ()
    (Cornell University)

  • Kahn, Lawrence M.

    ()
    (Cornell University)

  • Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

    ()
    (Mathematica Policy Research)

  • Papps, Kerry L.

    ()
    (University of Bath)

Abstract

Using 1995–2006 Current Population Survey and 1970–2000 Census data, we study the intergenerational transmission of fertility, human capital and work orientation of immigrants to their US-born children. We find that second-generation women's fertility and labor supply are significantly positively affected by the immigrant generation's fertility and labor supply respectively, with the effect of mother's fertility and labor supply larger than that of women from the father's source country. The second generation's education levels are also significantly positively affected by that of their parents, with a stronger effect of father's than mother's education. Second-generation women's schooling levels are negatively affected by immigrant fertility, suggesting a quality-quantity tradeoff for immigrant families. We find higher transmission rates for immigrant fertility to the second generation than we do for labor supply or education: after one generation, 40-65% of any immigrant excess fertility will remain, but only 12-18% of any immigrant annual hours shortfall and 18-36% of any immigrant educational shortfall. These results suggest a considerable amount of assimilation across generations toward native levels of schooling and labor supply, although fertility effects show more persistence.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3732.

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Length: 54 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2008
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of Population Economics, 2013, 26 (2), 405-435
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3732

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Keywords: immigration; second generation; gender; labor supply; fertility; human capital;

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References

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  1. David Card & John DiNardo & Eugena Estes, 1998. "The More Things Change: Immigrants and the Children of Immigrants in the 1940s, the 1970s, and the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 6519, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Gang, Ira N. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 1999. "Is Child like Parent? Educational Attainment and Ethnic Origin," IZA Discussion Papers 57, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  11. Blau, Francine D. & Kahn, Lawrence M., 2011. "Substitution Between Individual and Cultural Capital: Pre-Migration Labor Supply, Culture and US Labor Market Outcomes Among Immigrant Woman," IZA Discussion Papers 5890, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Jaeger, David A, 1997. "Reconciling the Old and New Census Bureau Education Questions: Recommendations for Researchers," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(3), pages 300-309, July.
  13. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2005. "Gender and Assimilation Among Mexican Americans," NBER Working Papers 11512, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. George J. Borjas, 1992. "The Intergenerational Mobility of Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 3972, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  17. Alberto Alesina & Edward Glaeser & Bruce Sacerdote, 2001. "Why Doesn't the United States Have a European-Style Welfare State?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 32(2), pages 187-278.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marcén, Miriam & Bellido, Héctor, 2013. "Teen Mothers and Culture," MPRA Paper 44712, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Sweetman, Arthur & van Ours, Jan C., 2014. "Immigration: What about the Children and Grandchildren?," IZA Discussion Papers 7919, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Yeter, Mustafa & Stichnoth, Holger, 2013. "Cultural influences on the fertility behaviour of first- and second-generation immigrants in Germany," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79882, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  4. Gevrek, Z. Eylem & Gevrek, Deniz & Gupta, Sonam, 2011. "Culture, Intermarriage, and Differentials in Second-Generation Immigrant Women's Labor Supply," IZA Discussion Papers 6043, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Leah Platt Boustan & William J. Collins, 2013. "The Origin and Persistence of Black-White Differences in Women's Labor Force Participation," NBER Chapters, in: Human Capital in History: The American Record National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Kelly Ragan, 2012. "Sex and the Single Girl: The Role of Culture in Contraception Demand," 2012 Meeting Papers 846, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  7. Rainald Borck, 2011. "Adieu Rabenmutter - The Effect of Culture on Fertility, Female Labour Supply, the Gender Wage Gap and Childcare," CESifo Working Paper Series 3337, CESifo Group Munich.
  8. Adsera, Alicia & Ferrer, Ana, 2014. "Immigrants and Demography: Marriage, Divorce, and Fertility," IZA Discussion Papers 7982, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Nicolas Hérault & Guyonne Kalb, 2009. "Intergenerational Correlation of Labour Market Outcomes," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2009n14, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  10. Z. Eylem Gevrek & Deniz Gevrek & Sonam Gupta, 2012. "Culture, Intermarriage, and Immigrant Women's - Labor Supply," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2012-28, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  11. Bastien CHABE-FERRET, 2013. "The Importance of Fertility Norms: New Evidence from France," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2013012, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  12. Francine D. Blau, 2013. "Comment on "The Female Labor Force and Long-run Development: The American Experience in Comparative Perspective"," NBER Chapters, in: Human Capital in History: The American Record National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Douglas Almond & Lena Edlund & Kevin Milligan, 2009. "O Sister, Where Art Thou? The Role of Son Preference and Sex Choice: Evidence from Immigrants to Canada," NBER Working Papers 15391, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Marina Della Giusta & Nigar Hashimzade, 2009. "Family Values and Educational Choice," Economics & Management Discussion Papers em-dp2009-01, Henley Business School, Reading University.

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