Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? A Simple Test
AbstractIt has been reported that there is dramatic increase of female workers into manager level jobs during last few decades in the US labor market. Using Standard & Poor’s Compustat ExecuComp database over 14 years (1992 - 2005), this paper examines whether the glass ceiling in the executive market has been substantially weakened measured by relative compensation by gender and female representation in the top rung of the executive market. Though the status of females in the executive market seems to have been improved, we cannot reject null hypothesis of no change when we test hypotheses whether the glass ceiling has significantly weakened. The results of the hypothesis tests suggest that there is still a long way ahead before gender equality is achieved and the glass ceiling is removed in the executive market.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3518.
Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: May 2008
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
- J70 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Justin Wolfers, 2006.
"Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender,"
NBER Working Papers
11989, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Justin Wolfers, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 531-541, 04-05.
- Wolfers, Justin, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 1944, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Wolfers, Justin, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 5507, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Bell, Linda A., 2005. "Women-Led Firms and the Gender Gap in Top Executive Jobs," IZA Discussion Papers 1689, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000.
"Gender Differences in Pay,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association,
American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2000.
"The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs,"
NBER Working Papers
7931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin Hallock, 1999. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," Working Papers, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section. 805, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Malkiel, Burton G & Malkiel, Judith A, 1973. "Male-Female Pay Differentials in Professional Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 693-705, September.
- Joanne Healy Burress & Linda J. Zucca, 2004. "The Gender Equity Gap in Top Corporate Executive Positions," American Journal of Business, Emerald Group Publishing, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 19(1), pages 55-62.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.