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Within and Between Gender Disparities in Income and Education Benefits from Democracy

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  • Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth

    ()
    (Emory University)

Abstract

There is data evidence that welfare has improved post democracy in Nigeria. However, the distribution or concentration of the benefits in subgroups of the population is unknown. In this paper, the question of differential welfare impacts, across and within gender, post democracy in Nigeria is explored. I make use of simple econometric tools to test two null hypotheses. First, there is no disparity in the income and returns to education benefits of the shift to democracy across gender in Nigeria. Second, there are no within gender disparities of the shift to democracy on income and returns to education in Nigeria. From the results, both null hypotheses are rejected. Though men and women benefited from reforms post democracy, gender differences exist. Specifically, I find on average higher income benefits for men post democracy. Nigeria. However, disparities in income benefits are at lower levels of education. Men and women have similar income benefits at the tertiary level. Interestingly, I find the reverse when considering returns to education. On average, women experienced a greater change in returns to education post democracy in Nigeria but this disparity is primarily at the tertiary level. I also find inequality has increased post democracy in Nigeria, more so among women than men.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3221.

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Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2007
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as 'Disparities in the Benefits from Democratic Reform in Nigeria: A Gender Perspective' in: Developing Economies, 2010, 48 (3), 345–375
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3221

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Keywords: gender; disparities; Nigeria; inequality; returns to education; democracy; income gap;

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  1. Lars P. Feld & Justina A.V. Fischer & Gebhard Kirchgassner, 2006. "The Effect of Direct Democracy on Income Redistribution: Evidence for Switzerland," CREMA Working Paper Series 2006-24, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
  2. Belton M. Fleisher & Klara Sabirianova Peter & Xiaojun Wang, 2004. "Returns to Skills and the Speed of Reforms: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe, China, and Russia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-703, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  3. Acemoglu, Daron & Robinson, James A, 1999. "Democratization or Repression?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2278, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Mark Gradstein & Branko Milanovic & Yvonne Ying, 2001. "Democracy and Income In-Equality: An Empirical Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 411, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Minier, Jenny A, 1998. " Democracy and Growth: Alternative Approaches," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 241-66, September.
  6. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  7. Pommerehne, Werner W., 1978. "Institutional approaches to public expenditure : Empirical evidence from Swiss municipalities," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 255-280, April.
  8. Edward L. Glaeser & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer, 2004. "Do Institutions Cause Growth?," NBER Working Papers 10568, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James Robinson, 2004. "Institutions As The Fundamental Cause Of Long-Run Growth," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 002889, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  10. Rigobon, Roberto & Rodrik, Dani, 2004. "Rule of Law, Democracy, Openness and Income: Estimating the Interrelationships," CEPR Discussion Papers 4653, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
  12. Gradstein. Mark & Milanovic, Branko, 2002. "Does Liberte = Egalite ? A survey of the empirical links between democracy and inequality with some evidence on the transition economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2875, The World Bank.
  13. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth, 2008. "Understanding Low Average Returns to Education in Africa: The Role of Heterogeneity across Education Levels and the Importance of Political and Economic Reforms," IZA Discussion Papers 3766, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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