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Demand for Higher Education Programs: The Impact of the Bologna Process

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Author Info

  • Cardoso, Ana Rute

    ()
    (IAE Barcelona (CSIC))

  • Portela, Miguel

    ()
    (University of Minho)

  • Sá, Carla

    ()
    (University of Minho)

  • Alexandre, Fernando

    ()
    (University of Minho)

Abstract

The Bologna process aims at creating a European Higher Education Area where inter-country mobility of students and staff, as well as workers holding a degree, is facilitated. While several aspects of the process deserve wide public support, the reduction of the length of the first cycle of studies to three years, in several continental European countries where it used to last for four or five years, is less consensual. The paper checks the extent of public confidence in the restructuring of higher education currently underway, by looking at its implications on the demand for academic programs. It exploits the fact that some programs have restructured under the Bologna process and others have not, in Portugal. Precise quantification of the demand for each academic program is facilitated by the rules of access to higher education, in a nation-wide competition, where candidates must list up to six preferences of institution and program. We use regression analysis applied to count data, estimating negative binomial models. Results indicate that the programs that restructured to follow the Bologna principles were subject to higher demand than comparable programs that did not restructure, as if Bologna were understood as a quality stamp. This positive impact was reinforced if the institution was a leader, i.e. the single one in the country that restructured the program. Still an additional increase in demand was experienced by large programs that restructured to offer an integrated master degree, thus conforming to Bologna principles while not reducing the program duration.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2532.

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Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: CESIfo Economic Studies, 2008, 54 (2), 229-247
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2532

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Related research

Keywords: economic; European Higher Education Area; education policy; social and cultural integration; count data;

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References

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  1. Black, Dan A. & Smith, J.A.Jeffrey A., 2004. "How robust is the evidence on the effects of college quality? Evidence from matching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 99-124.
  2. Andreu Mas-Colell, 2003. "The European Space of Higher Education: Incentive and Governance Issues," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 93(6), pages 9-27, November-.
  3. Hausman, Jerry & Hall, Bronwyn H & Griliches, Zvi, 1984. "Econometric Models for Count Data with an Application to the Patents-R&D Relationship," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 909-38, July.
  4. Mizrahi, Shlomo & Mehrez, Abraham, 2002. "Managing quality in higher education systems via minimal quality requirements: signaling and control," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 53-62, February.
  5. Terry Long, B.Bridget, 2004. "How have college decisions changed over time? An application of the conditional logistic choice model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 271-296.
  6. Guimarães, Paulo, 2008. "The fixed effects negative binomial model revisited," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 63-66, April.
  7. Paulo Guimaraes & Richard Lindrooth, 2005. "Dirichlet-Multinomial Regression," Econometrics 0509001, EconWPA.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Alexandre, Fernando & Portela, Miguel & Sá, Carla, 2008. "Admission Conditions and Graduates' Employability," IZA Discussion Papers 3530, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Cappellari, Lorenzo & Lucifora, Claudio, 2008. "The "Bologna Process" and College Enrolment Decisions," IZA Discussion Papers 3444, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Bosio, Giulio & Leonardi, Marco, 2011. "The Impact of Bologna Process on the Graduate Labour Market: Demand and Supply," IZA Discussion Papers 5789, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Frederick van der Ploeg & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2007. "Higher Education Reform and the Renewed Lisbon Strategy: Role of Member States and the European Commission," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/33, European University Institute.
  5. Giorgio Di Pietro, 2012. "The Bologna Process and widening participation in university education: new evidence from Italy," Empirica, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 357-374, August.
  6. Carlos Vieira & Isabel Vieira, 2011. "Determinants and projections of demand for higher education in Portugal," CEFAGE-UE Working Papers 2011_15, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).

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