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Equity and Equality

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  • Duclos, Jean-Yves

    ()
    (Université Laval)

Abstract

Is horizontal equity (HE) the "most widely accepted principle of equity"? Or does it stand in "opposition to the advancement of human welfare"? This paper argues that the case for the HE principle is not as straightforward as is usually thought and that it requires advanced notions of justice and wellbeing. The most likely ethical basis for HE appears to combine a Rawlsian maximin principle and a view of well-being that allows for relative local comparison effects. The paper also explores some of the dimensions of equality and well-being along which the HE principle can be applied and presents a number of examples showing how HE considerations can provide an important input into policy analysis.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2284.

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Length: 49 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Canadian Journal of Economics / Revue canadienne d'économique, 2006, 39 (4), 1073-1104
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2284

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Keywords: equality; horizontal equity; vertical equity; redistribution; social justice;

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References

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  1. Bibi, Sami & Duclos, Jean-Yves, 2007. "Equity and policy effectiveness with imperfect targeting," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 109-140, May.
  2. King, Mervyn A, 1983. "An Index of Inequality: With Applications to Horizontal Equity and Social Mobility," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 51(1), pages 99-115, January.
  3. Andrew Clark & David Masclet & Marie-Claire Villeval, 2006. "Effort and Comparison Income : Survey and Experimental Evidence," Post-Print, HAL halshs-00142880, HAL.
  4. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 1998. "Are there dynamic gains from a poor-area development program?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 65-85, January.
  5. Mervyn A. King, 1980. "An Index of Inequality: With Applications to Horizontal Equity and Social Mobility," NBER Working Papers 0468, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Michael Grimm, 2005. "Removing the anonymity axiom in assessing pro-poor growth," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research 113, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  7. Pfahler, Wilhelm, 1987. "Redistributive Effects of Tax Progressivity: Evaluating a General Class of Aggregate Measures," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , , vol. 42(1), pages 1-31.
  8. Louis Kaplow, 1985. "Horizontal Equity: Measures in Search of a Principle," NBER Working Papers 1679, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Duclos, Jean-Yves & Jalbert, Vincent & Araar, Abdelkrim, 2000. "Classical Horizontal Inequity and Reranking: an Integrated Approach," Cahiers de recherche, Université Laval - Département d'économique 0002, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  10. Robert H. Frank, 2005. "Positional Externalities Cause Large and Preventable Welfare Losses," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 137-141, May.
  11. Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1982. "Utilitarianism and horizontal equity : The case for random taxation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-33, June.
  12. Duclos, Jean-Yves & Jalbert, Vincent & Araar, Abdelkrim, 2003. "Classical Horizontal Inequity and Reranking: an Integrating Approach," Cahiers de recherche, CIRPEE 0306, CIRPEE.
  13. Ravallion, Martin, 2004. "Competing concepts of inequality in the globalization debate," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 3243, The World Bank.
  14. Duclos, Jean-Yves & Lambert, Peter J., 1997. "A Normative Approach to Measuring Classical Horizontal Inequity," Cahiers de recherche, Université Laval - Département d'économique 9701, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  15. Deepa Narayan & Patti Petesch, 2002. "Voices of the Poor : From Many Lands," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14053, August.
  16. Nava Ashraf & Colin F. Camerer & George Loewenstein, 2005. "Adam Smith, Behavioral Economist," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 19(3), pages 131-145, Summer.
  17. John C. Harsanyi, 1955. "Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics, and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63, pages 309.
  18. Alan J. Auerbach & Kevin A. Hassett, 1999. "A New Measure of Horizontal Equity," NBER Working Papers 7035, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Mui, V.L., 1992. "The Economics of Envy," Papers, Southern California - Department of Economics 9306, Southern California - Department of Economics.
  20. Balcer, Yves & Sadka, Efraim, 1986. "Equivalence scales, horizontal equity and optimal taxation under utilitarianism," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 79-97, February.
  21. Joan Esteban & Debraj Ray, 2006. "Inequality, Lobbying, and Resource Allocation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 96(1), pages 257-279, March.
  22. Steven R. Beckman & Buhong Zheng & John P. Formby & W. James Smith, 2002. "Envy, malice and Pareto efficiency: An experimental examination," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 349-367.
  23. Ernst Fehr & Urs Fischbacher, 2004. "The nature of human altruism," Experimental, EconWPA 0402003, EconWPA.
  24. Feldstein, Martin, 1976. "On the theory of tax reform," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 77-104.
  25. Park, Albert & Wang, Sangui & Wu, Guobao, 2002. "Regional poverty targeting in China," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 123-153, October.
  26. Kaplow, Louis, 1989. "Horizontal Equity: Measures in Search of a Principle," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 42(2), pages 139-54, June.
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Cited by:
  1. Pierre Lefebvre & Philip Merrigan & Francis Roy-Desrosiers, 2011. "Québec's Childcare Universal Low Fees Policy 10 Years After: Effects, Costs and Benefits," Cahiers de recherche, CIRPEE 1101, CIRPEE.
  2. Essama-Nssah, B., 2008. "Assessing the redistributive effect of fiscal policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 4592, The World Bank.

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