Women's Hours of Market Work in Germany: The Role of Parental Leave
AbstractThis paper investigates trends and changes in the structural composition of women’s weekly market hours worked in former West-Germany using aggregate time-series data from the German micro census from 1957 until 2002. Aggregate weekly hours worked per working-age woman are decomposed into hours worked per employee – the intensive margin of adjustment – and the employment-to-population (EP-) ratio – the extensive margin. The decomposition is performed by women’s marital status, their age, and whether or not young children are present. The main results are that since the mid 1970s, the EP-ratio has steadily risen among female employees of all marital statuses whereas the weekly hours worked per female employee have declined. These changes have been the most distinct among married women with young children. The paper attributes much of the observed changes for married women to institutional modifications in the federal legislation governing parental leave which have occurred since 1986.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1288.
Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2004
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: R. Goméz-Salvador et al. (eds.), Labour Supply and Incentive to Work in Europe, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Larry E. Jones & Rodolfo E. Manuelli & Ellen R. McGrattan, 2003. "Why are married women working so much?," Staff Report 317, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Claudia Olivetti, 2006.
"Changes in Women's Hours of Market Work: The Role of Returns to Experience,"
Review of Economic Dynamics,
Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(4), pages 557-587, October.
- Claudia Olivetti, 2005. "Changes in Women's Hours of Market Work: The Role of Returns to Experience," Boston University - Department of Economics - Macroeconomics Working Papers Series WP2005-008, Boston University - Department of Economics, revised Jun 2006.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1998.
"The Economic Consequences Of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons From Europe,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 113(1), pages 285-317, February.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1996. "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe," NBER Working Papers 5688, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Del Boca, Daniela, 2002.
"The Effect of Child Care and Part Time Opportunities on Participation and Fertility Decisions in Italy,"
IZA Discussion Papers
427, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Daniela Del Boca, 2002. "The effect of child care and part time opportunities on participation and fertility decisions in Italy," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 549-573.
- Kaiser, Lutz C., 2006. "Female Labor Market Transitions in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 2115, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Marcus Tamm, 2010.
"Child Benefit Reform and Labor Market Participation,"
Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik),
Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 230(3), pages 313-327, June.
- Marcus Tamm, 2009. "Child Benefit Reform and Labor Market Participation," Ruhr Economic Papers 0097, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
- Rafael Lalive & Analía Schlosser & Andreas Steinhauer & Josef Zweimüller, 2014.
"Parental Leave and Mothers' Careers: The Relative Importance of Job Protection and Cash Benefits,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 81(1), pages 219-265.
- Rafael Lalive & Analía Schlosser & Andreas Steinhauer & Josef Zweimüller, 2011. "Parental Leave and Mothers' Careers: The Relative Importance of Job Protection and Cash Benefits," NRN working papers 2011-14, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- Rafael Lalive & Analía Schlosser & Andreas Steinhauer & Josef Zweimüller, 2011. "Parental leave and mothers' careers: the relative importance of job protection and cash benefits," ECON - Working Papers 042, Department of Economics - University of Zurich.
- Lalive, Rafael & Schlosser, Analia & Steinhauer, Andreas & Zweimüller, Josef, 2011. "Parental Leave and Mothers' Careers: The Relative Importance of Job Protection and Cash Benefits," IZA Discussion Papers 5792, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Pierre-Carl Michaud & Konstantinos Tatsiramos, 2005.
"Employment Dynamics of Married Women in Europe,"
273, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
- Paul Klein & David Domeij, 2008.
"Should daycare be subsidized?,"
2008 Meeting Papers
750, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Reich, Nora, 2008. "Das Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeitgesetz in Deutschland: Analyse potenzieller Effekte auf Geburtenzahl und Fertilitätsstruktur," HWWI Policy Papers 1-10, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
- C. Katharina Spieß, 2011. "Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf – wie wirksam sind deutsche „Care Policies“?," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 12(s1), pages 4-27, 05.
- Boll, Christina & Leppin, Julian Sebastian & Reich, Nora, 2011. "Einfluss der Elternzeit von Vätern auf die familiale Arbeitsteilung im internationalen Vergleich," HWWI Policy Papers 59, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.