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Spatial Dimensions of Expenditure Inequality and the Role of Education in Indonesia: An Analysis of the 2008-2010 Susenas Panel

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Abstract

Based on 2008-2010 Susenas panel data, this study analyzes expenditure inequality in Indonesia from spatial perspectives by using several inequality decomposition methods: decomposition of the Theil indices by population subgroups; decomposition of the Gini coefficient by expenditure components; and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. In the Theil decomposition, this study employs not only the conventional approach but also an alternative approach proposed by Elbers and others (2008). Our results show that a substantial portion of expenditure inequality is attributed to inequalities within urban and rural sectors. According to the alternative approach, however, the contribution of between-sector inequality increases conspicuously, suggesting that there are notable differences in the distribution of per capita household expenditures between the urban and rural sectors. Educational differences appear to have played an important role in urban inequality as well as urban-rural disparity. For both urban and rural households, expenditures on non-food items, including expenditure on education, serve to have increased total inequality.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Research Institute, International University of Japan in its series Working Papers with number EMS_2012_21.

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Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iuj:wpaper:ems_2012_21

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Keywords: Income Indonesia; spatial inequality; decomposition of Theil indices and Gini coefficient; Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition; education; contribution of between-group inequality;

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  1. Takahiro Akita & Alit Pirmansah, 2011. "Urban Inequality in Indonesia," Working Papers EMS_2011_04, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
  2. Hal Hill & RBudy Resosudarmo & Yogi Vidyattama, 2008. "Indonesia's Changing Economic Geography," Departmental Working Papers 2008-02, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
  3. Shorrocks, Anthony & Wan, Guanghua, 2004. "Spatial Decomposition of Inequality," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  4. Ben Jann, 2008. "The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition for linear regression models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 8(4), pages 453-479, December.
  5. Takahiro Akita & Puji Agus Kurniawan & Sachiko Miyata, 2011. "Structural Changes and Regional Income Inequality in Indonesia: A Bidimensional Decomposition Analysis," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 55-77, 03.
  6. Pyatt, Graham & Chen, Chau-nan & Fei, John, 1980. "The Distribution of Income by Factor Components," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 95(3), pages 451-73, November.
  7. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
  8. Kanbur, Ravi, 2000. "Income distribution and development," Handbook of Income Distribution, in: A.B. Atkinson & F. Bourguignon (ed.), Handbook of Income Distribution, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 791-841 Elsevier.
  9. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  10. David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. B. Raksaka Mahi & Suahasil Nazara, 2012. "Survey of recent developments," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(1), pages 7-31, April.
  12. Jonathan Haughton & Shahidur R. Khandker, 2009. "Handbook on Poverty and Inequality," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 11985.
  13. Chris Elbers & Peter Lanjouw & Johan Mistiaen & Berk Özler, 2008. "Reinterpreting between-group inequality," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 231-245, September.
  14. Takahiro Akita, 2002. "Regional Income Inequality In Indonesia And The Initial Impact Of The Economic Crisis," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(2), pages 201-222.
  15. Lerman, Robert I & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1985. "Income Inequality Effects by Income," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(1), pages 151-56, February.
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