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Grading, Minimum Quality Standards, and the Labeling of Genetically Modified Products

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  • Lapan, Harvey E.
  • Moschini, GianCarlo

Abstract

We relate the labeling of genetically modified (GM) products to the theory of grading and minimum quality standards. The model represents three stages in the supply chain, assumes a vertical product differentiation framework, allows for the accidental commingling of non-GM products, and treats regulation as a purity threshold for non-GM products. We find that a non-GM purity level that is too strict leads to the disappearance of the non-GM product, and that some quality standard benefits farmers. Indeed, the standard that is optimal from the perspective of producers is stricter than what is optimal for consumers and for societal welfare.

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File URL: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/sites/default/files/publications/papers/paper_12553_06012.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Iowa State University, Department of Economics in its series Staff General Research Papers with number 12553.

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Date of creation: 23 Mar 2006
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Publication status: Published in American Journal of Agricultural Economics, August 2007, vol. 89, pp. 769-783
Handle: RePEc:isu:genres:12553

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Postal: Iowa State University, Dept. of Economics, 260 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1070
Phone: +1 515.294.6741
Fax: +1 515.294.0221
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Web page: http://www.econ.iastate.edu
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References

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  1. Giancarlo Moschini & Harvey Lapan & Andrei Sobolevsky, 2000. "Roundup ready� soybeans and welfare effects in the soybean complex," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 33-55.
  2. Shapiro, Carl, 1983. "Premiums for High Quality Products as Returns to Reputations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(4), pages 659-79, November.
  3. Bruce Gardner, 2003. "U.S. Food Quality Standards: Fix for Market Failure or Costly Anachronism?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(3), pages 725-730.
  4. Leland, Hayne E, 1979. "Quacks, Lemons, and Licensing: A Theory of Minimum Quality Standards," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1328-46, December.
  5. Murray Fulton & Konstantinos Giannakas, 2004. "Inserting GM Products into the Food Chain: The Market and Welfare Effects of Different Labeling and Regulatory Regimes," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(1), pages 42-60.
  6. Lapan, Harvey E. & Moschini, GianCarlo, 2004. "Innovation and Trade with Endogenous Market Failure: The Case of Genetically Modified Products," Staff General Research Papers 2109, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  7. Mussa, Michael & Rosen, Sherwin, 1978. "Monopoly and product quality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 301-317, August.
  8. Bullock, David S. & Desquilbet, Marion & Nitsi, Elisavet I., 2000. "The Economics Of Non-Gmo Segregation And Identity Preservation," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21845, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  9. José Benjamin Falck-Zepeda & Greg Traxler & Robert G. Nelson, 2000. "Surplus Distribution from the Introduction of a Biotechnology Innovation," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(2), pages 360-369.
  10. Akerlof, George A, 1970. "The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500, August.
  11. Valletti, Tommaso M, 2000. "Minimum Quality Standards under Cournot Competition," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 235-45, November.
  12. Maxwell, John W., 1998. "Minimum quality standards as a barrier to innovation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 355-360, March.
  13. Carter, Colin A. & Gruere, Guillaume P., 2003. "International Approaches to the Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods," Choices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 18(2).
  14. Stivers, Andrew, 2003. "Quality standards with exogenously distributed quality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 131-136, July.
  15. Dimitri Carolyn, 2003. "Agricultural Marketing Institutions: A Response to Quality Disputes," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-25, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Lapan, Harvey E. & Moschini, GianCarlo, 2009. "Quality Certification Standards in Competitive Markets: When Consumers and Producers (Dis)Agree," Staff General Research Papers 13048, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  2. Bonroy, Olivier & Lemarié, Stéphane, 2012. "Downstream labeling and upstream price competition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 347-360.
  3. Hu, Wuyang & Woods, Timothy A. & Bastin, Sandra & Cox, Linda J. & You, Wen, 2011. "Assessing Consumer Willingness to Pay for Value-Added Blueberry Products Using a Payment Card Survey," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 43(02), May.
  4. Hajderllari, Eliona & Karantininis, Kostas, 2011. "Genetically modified foods in vertically differentiated and vertically oligopolistic markets," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114774, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  5. Bansal, Sangeeta & Chakravarty, Sujoy & Ramaswami, Bharat, 2013. "The informational and signaling impacts of labels: experimental evidence from India on GM foods," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(06), pages 701-722, December.
  6. Desquilbet, Marion & Poret, Sylvaine, 2012. "How do GM / non GM coexistence regulations affect markets and welfare?," TSE Working Papers 12-350, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
  7. Bonroy, O. & Constantatos, C., 2013. "On the economics of labels : a review of the theoretical literature," Working Papers 2013-01, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
  8. GianCarlo Moschini, 2008. "Biotechnology and the Development of Food Markets: Retrospect and Prospects," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 08-wp477, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.

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