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An Arbitrage Model for the Stock Price Adjustment in the Dividend Period

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  • Maria Rosa Borges

Abstract

Following a dividend distribution, investors expect the stock price to decrease on the ex-dividend day. With no market imperfections, the price decrease should exactly match the amount of the dividend, thus eliminating all opportunities for profitable arbitrage. Allowing for different taxes on dividends and on capital gains results in a stock price adjustment ratio different from one, but there is still a unique equilibrium. With a simple model, considering four types of investors, we show that the consideration of transaction costs results in multiple possible equilibria (equilibrium zone), defined by the arbitrage boundaries of each type of investors. We also show that trading activity by the different types of investors is reflected in abnormal trading volume.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon in its series Working Papers Department of Economics with number 2007/09.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ise:isegwp:wp92007

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Postal: Department of Economics, ISEG - School of Economics and Management, University of Lisbon, Rua do Quelhas 6, 1200-781 LISBON, PORTUGAL
Web page: https://aquila1.iseg.ulisboa.pt/aquila/departamentos/EC

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Keywords: Dividend; Arbitrage; Market equilibrium; Transactions costs; Taxes;

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  1. Lakonishok, Josef & Vermaelen, Theo, 1986. "Tax-induced trading around ex-dividend days," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 287-319, July.
  2. John H. Boyd & Ravi Jagannathan, 1994. "Ex-dividend price behavior of common stocks," Working Papers 500, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  3. Eades, Kenneth M. & Hess, Patrick J. & Kim, E. Han, 1984. "On interpreting security returns during the ex-dividend period," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 3-34, March.
  4. Palani-Rajan Kadapakkam, 2000. "Reduction of Constraints on Arbitrage Trading and Market Efficiency: An Examination of Ex-Day Returns in Hong Kong after Introduction of Electronic Settlement," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2841-2861, December.
  5. Michaely, Roni & Vila, Jean-Luc, 1995. "Investors' Heterogeneity, Prices, and Volume around the Ex-Dividend Day," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(02), pages 171-198, June.
  6. Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J, 1970. "Marginal Stockholder Tax Rates and the Clientele Effect," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(1), pages 68-74, February.
  7. Miller, Merton H & Scholes, Myron S, 1982. "Dividends and Taxes: Some Empirical Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1118-41, December.
  8. Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1988. "Short-term trading around ex-dividend days : Additional evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 291-298, September.
  9. Bartholdy, Jan & Briown, Kate, 2002. "Testing for Multiple Types of Marginal Investor in Ex-day Pricing," Finance Working Papers 02-12, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Business Studies.
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