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Energia Fotovoltaica Ligada à Rede Elétrica: Atratividade Para o Consumidor Final e Possíveis Impactos no Sistema Elétrico

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  • Andrea Felippe Cabello
  • Fabiano Mezadre Pompermayer
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    Abstract

    Este trabalho discute a inserção da microgeração distribuída de energia elétrica a partir da energia solar fotovoltaica. Apresentou-se um resumo da experiência internacional na inserção desta tecnologia, comparando seus objetivos com a situação brasileira. É feita uma avaliação da atratividade econômica de se instalarem painéis fotovoltaicos em residências brasileiras, com base no custo da energia elétrica convencional, fornecida pelas concessionárias de distribuição. Esta avaliação considera a oferta de equipamentos no mercado doméstico e os índices de insolação de cada região, bem como as tarifas residenciais praticadas em 2012. Alguns municípios já teriam o custo da energia fotovoltaica bem próximo das tarifas praticadas, em especial nas situações com alíquotas de impostos mais elevadas. Confirmada a possibilidade desta energia se tornar viável nos próximos anos, discutiram-se alguns impactos de sua inserção no sistema elétrico brasileiro, em especial o fato de que sua geração ocorre em horário do dia distinto do horário de pico de consumo na rede elétrica. Como sugestão de política pública para minimizar este problema, recomendou-se que o usuário, que se tornar microgerador e quiser injetar a energia excedente na rede elétrica, seja obrigado a migrar para a tarifa horossazonal, chamada de Tarifa Branca na classe de consumo residencial. Desta forma, a energia injetada seria remunerada a um preço mais condizente com o custo da energia elétrica no instante em que a energia solar está disponível. This paper discusses the insertion of distributed microgeneration of electricity using solar photovoltaics. We present, briefly, the international experience implementing solar energy programs, comparing their goals with the Brazilian situation. An evaluation of the economic attractiveness of installing photovoltaic panels on homes in Brazil is developed, based on the fares of conventional electricity supplied by utilities. This analysis considers the supply of such equipment in the domestic market and the insolation rates of each region, as well as the fares for residential consumers prevailing in 2012. i. As versões em língua inglesa das sinopses desta coleção não são objeto de revisão pelo Editorial do Ipea. The versions in English of the abstracts of this series have not been edited by Ipea’s publishing department.In some cities, the cost of photovoltaic energy would already be low enough in comparison with such fares, especially in situations with higher tax rates. Confirmed the possibility of this kind of energy become viable in the years ahead, we discuss some impacts of its insertion in the Brazilian electric system, especially the fact that this generation occurs at different times of the day-peek consumption in the electric grid.As a public policy suggestion to minimize this problem, we recommend that the user, who becomes a microgenerator and want to inject excess power on the grid, is required to migrate to the hourly fare scheme, called the White Fare in the residential consumption class. Thus, the energy injected would be remunerated at a price more in line with the cost of electricity at the moment that the solar energy is available.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1812.

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    Length: 52 pages
    Date of creation: Feb 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1812

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