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Heterogeneidade Estrutural no Setor Agropecuário Brasileiro: Evidências a Partir do Censo Agropecuário de 2006

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Author Info

  • Armando Fornazier
  • José Eustáquio Ribeiro Vieira Filho

Abstract

A agropecuária brasileira possui um reconhecimento internacional pela produção e exportação de muitos produtos, inserindo-se em modernas cadeias produtivas. Entretanto, vários produtores se encontram em situação de pobreza rural, produzindo apenas para a subsistência. Esse fenômeno do "moderno" conviver com o "atrasado" chamado de heterogeneidade estrutural (HE) já era descrito na década de 1970 pela escola da Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (Cepal), tanto na comparação entre países quanto entre setores, e até mesmo dentro de um mesmo setor. Muitos fatores podem contribuir para a HE, desde a implementação de políticas agrícolas, causas climáticas, organização econômica e social, entre outros. Porém, a tecnologia também tem uma grande importância na diminuição ou aprofundamento da HE, na medida em que permite otimizar a produção, fazendo uma melhor combinação de insumos produtivos, poupando fatores de produção escassos. Este trabalho busca analisar a HE no setor agropecuário brasileiro com base nos dados do Censo Agropecuário de 2006. A heterogeneidade não é unicamente pela condição de ser pequeno ou grande produtor, mas resultante de diversos outros fatores. Neste estudo, o foco se dá na tecnologia, tendo em vista que esta pode reverter disparidades ou aprofundá-las, na medida em que não há perfeito acesso ou difusão tecnológica entre o conjunto dos agentes produtivos. É preciso também levar em consideração outras características, como a organização social, a capacidade de aprendizado dos agentes e a cooperação entre produtores. The Brazilian agriculture has an international recognition for producing and exporting many products, but at the same time that Brazil has inserted into a modern agribusiness production chains, many farmers are in a situation of rural poverty, producing only for subsistence. This phenomenon of "modern" living with the late called structural heterogeneity (SH) was already described in the 1970s by the school of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), both at the level between countries and between sectors and even within the same sector. Many factors may contribute to SH, since the implementation of agricultural policies, climate causes, organization, and social, among others. However, the technology also has a great importance on reducing or deepens the SH, in that it allows you. to optimize production, making a better combination of factors, for example, saving land and capital. This paper seeks to analyze the SH in Brazilian agricultural sector based on data from the 2006 Agricultural Census. The heterogeneity is not only the condition of being big or small producer, but other characteristics such as cultural, geographical, climatic, and others can cause these disparities. However, the technology may be able to reverse disparities or deepen them to the extent that there is no the perfect access or technological diffusion among the set of productive agents. One must also take to consider other characteristics such as social organization, learning and cooperation of producers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1708.

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Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1708

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Cited by:
  1. Cândido Luiz de Lima Fernandes & José Eustáquio Ribeiro Vieira Filho, 2000. "Especialização e competitividade de Minas Gerais no mercado internacional: um estudo de indicadores de comércio exterior no período de 1992 a 1999," Anais do IX Seminário sobre a Economia Mineira [Proceedings of the 9th Seminar on the Economy of Minas Gerais], Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, in: João Antonio de Paula & et alli (ed.), Anais do IX Seminário sobre a Economia Mineira, volume 1, pages 357-382 Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

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