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Aspectos Conceituais e Práticos da Atuação do Brasil em Cooperação Sul-Sul: Os Casos de Haiti, Bolívia e Guiné Bissau

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  • Moníca Hirst
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    Abstract

    Brasil vem projetando uma presença internacional na qual combina ações de assistência humanitária, programas de cooperação horizontal e presença militarpolicial. Conquanto seja certo que esta atuação obedece às premissas da política internacional do país, os formatos desta presença são muito variados, condicionados pelos compromissos bilaterais e multilaterais específicos e pela própria realidade a ser atendida. Neste artigo serão analisados três casos particularmente ilustrativos, que, se espera, ajudem a compreender a forma e o conteúdo desta presença. Os exemplos do Haiti, da Bolívia e da Guiné Bissau são representativos, seja pelo volume de recursos despendidos, o número de ações e agências governamentais que envolvem e a própria destreza geopolítica da cooperação para o desenvolvimento oferecido pelo Brasil. Estes países correspondem também a focos de especial interesse da política externa brasileira, seja em função da importância atribuída à estabilidade democrática na América do Sul, como se dá no laço com a Bolívia; dos compromissos com a Comunidade de Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP) como instrumento de aprofundamento da política africana, como ocorre com vínculo mantido com a Guiné Bissau; ou dos compromissos assumidos na área de segurança global, no marco do Conselho de Segurança da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU), como ocorre no Haiti desde 2004. O Brasil se posiciona nos três países como um ator que pretende identificar-se com um "novo tempo" da cooperação internacional que, além de contribuir para desvencilhar o receptor de um passado insatisfatório em matéria de cooperação internacional, mostra-se comprometido com uma missão de transformação sustentável. Over the past decade, Brazil has launched a foreign policy that has revealed its aim to broaden its influence in the design of the global multilateral architecture, and increase both its presence in UN peace operations and its cooperation in the development of low-income countries (LICs) in Latin America and Africa. In order to achieve this aim, the Brazilian government has been stimulating the country`s international participation in humanitarian assistance actions, in UN-led peace missions and in cooperation for development initiatives. This paper will present three illustrative cases, which demonstrate the different forms this participation can take and the variety of methods of intervention they may involve: Haiti, Bolivia and Guinea-Bissau. These cases reveal the diversity of Brazilian involvement in Sousth-South Cooperation( SSC), regarding political motivations, cultural affinities and regional/global aspirations. They also help illustrate certain plasticity in Brazil`s performance as an emerging donor. The three cases portray the multidimensional nature of the Brazilian South-South agenda, in which security, development, and political and institutional support are intertwined. In addition, these countries represent areas of high interest in Brazilian foreign policy. In the case of Bolivia, its importance relates to the Brazilian interest in promoting democratic stability in South America. In the case of Guinea-Bissau, its importance relates to the Brazilian aim to strengthen its commitments to the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), as an instrument to foster relations with the African continent. Finally, in the case of Haiti, its significance is related to Brazil`s stance when intervention takes place in vulnerable states with the aim to improve Brazil`s presence in global governance associated with the promotion of sustainable development in the low income countries.

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    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1687.

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    Length: 49 pages
    Date of creation: Jan 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1687

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