The Reduction of Fiscal Space in Zambia?Dutch Disease and Tight-Money Conditionalities
AbstractDuring 2005-2006, appreciation of the Kwacha, Zambia?s currency, had a significant negative impact on public income. This exchange-rate effect received little notice in the debate over macroeconomic policy. The appreciation reduced fiscal space largely because of binding IMF conditionalities on monetary polices. The fiscal effect had two major revenue components: a fall in the domestic-currency income equivalent of official development assistance and a fall in trade taxes. In 2005, the negative effect on the public budget of the Kwacha appreciation was largely balanced by the positive impact on reducing external debt service. This positive impact ended, however, with debt relief and was almost zero after 2005. Obviously, these revenue effects, though little noticed, had negative implications for Zambia?s ability to achieve the MDGs. The Zambia experience underscores some important general lessons. It indicates, for example, the necessity to coordinate fiscal, monetary and exchange-rate policy in order to achieve sustained growth, employment generation and poverty reduction. Most important, this experience is also a clear example of the dysfunctional consequences of having low-inflation targets rule monetary policy. In the context of currency appreciation, setting limits on the domestic money supply prevents effective exchange-rate management. This necessarily creates, as a by-product, larger fiscal deficits and, consequently, more public borrowing. And these negative fiscal consequences could significantly constrict the resources that some developing countries need to achieve the MDGs.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth in its series Country Study with number 14.
Date of creation: Jan 2008
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published by UNDP - International Poverty Centre, January 2008, pages 1-16
The Reduction of Fiscal Space in Zambia?Dutch Disease and Tight-Money Conditionalities;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2008-02-09 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2008-02-09 (All new papers)
- NEP-CBA-2008-02-09 (Central Banking)
- NEP-DEV-2008-02-09 (Development)
- NEP-MAC-2008-02-09 (Macroeconomics)
- NEP-PKE-2008-02-09 (Post Keynesian Economics)
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