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Mass education or a minority well educated elite in the process of development: The case of India

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  • Amparo Castello-Climent

    ()

  • Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay

    ()
    (Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi)

Abstract

This paper analyses whether in developing countries mass education is the key or a highly well educated elite should be more bene?cial for growth. Using the Indian census data as a benchmark and enrollment rates of di!erent levels of schooling we compute annual attainment levels for a panel of 16 Indian states from 1961 to 2001. Results show that one standard deviation increment in the share of population with tertiary education is 3 times more bene?cial for growth than a one standard deviation increment in literacy. Using simulations we consider two alternate policies: one that doubles the increments to the literacy rates (relative to its baseline rate of increase) and another that doubles the annual increments to the share of adult population with tertiary education. We show that at the end of 35 years, the state following the latter policy has a per capita GDP 1.5 time more than the state that emphasizes the former.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India in its series Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers with number 10-08.

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Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ind:isipdp:10-08

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Keywords: Distribution of education; attainment levels; economic growth; panel data;

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  1. Rayaprolu Nagaraj & Aristomène Varoudakis & Marie-Ange Véganzonès, 1998. "Long-Run Growth Trends and Convergence Across Indian States," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 131, OECD Publishing.
  2. Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A., 1986. "Errors in variables in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 93-118, February.
  3. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1993. "International comparisons of educational attainment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 363-394, December.
  4. Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  5. Benhabib, Jess & Spiegel, Mark M., 1994. "The role of human capital in economic development evidence from aggregate cross-country data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 143-173, October.
  6. ?gel de la Fuente & Rafael Dom?ech, . "Human Capital In Growth Regressions: How Much Difference Does Data Quality Make?," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 446.00, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  7. Saint-Paul, G., 1994. "The Role of Rents to Human Capital in Economic Development," DELTA Working Papers 94-01, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  8. Chetan Ghate & Stephen Wright, 2008. "V-Factor: Distribution, timing and correlates of the the great Indian growth turnaround," Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers 08-03, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
  9. Barry Bosworth & Susan M. Collins & Arvind Virmani, 2007. "Sources of Growth in the Indian Economy," NBER Working Papers 12901, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Ashish Arora & Surendra K. Bagde, 2010. "Human capital and the Indian software industry," NBER Working Papers 16167, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Peter J. Klenow & Mark Bils, 2000. "Does Schooling Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1160-1183, December.
  12. Kaivan Munshi & Mark Rosenzweig, 2009. "Why is Mobility in India so Low? Social Insurance, Inequality, and Growth," NBER Working Papers 14850, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Sarah Voitchovsky, 2005. "Does the Profile of Income Inequality Matter for Economic Growth?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 273-296, 09.
  14. Michael Kremer & Nazmul Chaudhury & F. Halsey Rogers & Karthik Muralidharan & Jeffrey Hammer, 2005. "Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 658-667, 04/05.
  15. Arvind Subramanian & Raghuram Rajan & Ioannis Tokatlidis & Kalpana Kochhar & Utsav Kumar, 2006. "India's Pattern of Development," IMF Working Papers 06/22, International Monetary Fund.
  16. Vandenbussche, Jérôme & Aghion, Philippe & Meghir, Costas, 2006. "Growth, distance to frontier and composition of human capital," Scholarly Articles 12490648, Harvard University Department of Economics.
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