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External Imbalances in the Euro Area

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Author Info

  • Ruo Chen
  • Gian-Maria Milesi-Ferretti
  • Thierry Tressel

Abstract

The paper examines the extent to which current account imbalances of euro area countries are related to intra-euro area factors and to external trade shocks. We argue that the traditional explanations for the rising imbalances are correct, but are incomplete. We uncover a large impact of declines in export competitiveness and asymmetric trade developments vis-à-vis the rest of the world –in particular vis-à-vis China, Central and Eastern Europe, and oil exporters- on the external balance of euro area debtor countries. While current account imbalances of euro area deficit countries vis-à-vis the rest of the world increased, they were financed mostly by intra-euro area capital inflows (in particular by the purchase of government and financial institutions’ securities, and cross-border interbank lending) which permitted external imbalances to grow over time.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 12/236.

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Length: 49
Date of creation: 28 Sep 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:12/236

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Related research

Keywords: Capital inflows; Current account deficits; Debtor countries; Economic integration; Europe; European Economic and Monetary Union; Exchange rate appreciation; Export competitiveness; External debt; External shocks; Real effective exchange rates; Terms of trade; trading partner; trading partners; commodity exporters; domestic demand; oil exporters; oil prices; export performance; domestic investment; impact of trade; trade deficits; tradable goods; external financing; domestic prices; world trade; trade performance; bilateral imports; export prices; bilateral trade; export shares; balance of payments; exporting countries; external trade; open economy; return on capital; partner countries; common market; current account balance; foreign ownership; external finance; domestic banks; common markets; trade imbalances; import prices; area trade; export markets; open economies; domestic � demand; trade classification; partner country; commodity prices;

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References

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  1. Coeurdacier, Nicolas & Martin, Philippe, 2006. "The Geography of Asset Trade and the Euro: Insiders and Outsiders," ESSEC Working Papers DR 06020, ESSEC Research Center, ESSEC Business School.
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  5. Mark M. Spiegel, 2009. "Monetary and financial integration: Evidence from the EMU," NBER Chapters, in: Financial Globalization, 20th Anniversary Conference, NBER-TCER-CEPR National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  8. Lane, Philip R. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 2007. "The external wealth of nations mark II: Revised and extended estimates of foreign assets and liabilities, 1970-2004," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 223-250, November.
  9. Alejandro Micco & Ernesto Stein & Guillermo OrdoÒez, 2003. "The currency union effect on trade: early evidence from EMU," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 18(37), pages 315-356, October.
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  11. Sven Blank & Claudia M Buch, 2007. "The Euro and Cross-Border Banking: Evidence from Bilateral Data," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 49(3), pages 389-410, September.
  12. Kalemli-Ozcan, Sebnem & Papaioannou, Elias & Peydró, José-Luis, 2010. "What lies beneath the euro's effect on financial integration? Currency risk, legal harmonization, or trade?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 75-88, May.
  13. Philip R. Lane, 2006. "The Real Effects of European Monetary Union," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 47-66, Fall.
  14. Mark M. Spiegel, 2009. "Monetary and Financial Integration in the EMU: Push or Pull?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 751-776, 09.
  15. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
  16. Bogdan Lissovolik & Julio Escolano & Stefania Fabrizio & Werner Schule & Herman Z. Bennett & Stephen Tokarick & Yuan Xiao & Marialuz Moreno Badia & Eva Gutierrez & Iryna V. Ivaschenko, 2008. "Competitiveness in the Southern Euro Area," IMF Working Papers 08/112, International Monetary Fund.
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Citations

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Le rôle clé des banques dans les déséquilibres de la zone euro
    by ? in D'un champ l'autre on 2014-04-17 19:02:00
Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
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Cited by:
  1. Fabian Lindner, 2013. "Banken treiben Eurokrise," IMK Report 82-2013, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
  2. Gauti Eggertsson & Andrea Ferrero & Andrea Raffo, 2013. "Can structural reforms help Europe?," International Finance Discussion Papers 1092, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Angelini, Elena & Ca' Zorzi, Michele & Forster, Katrin, 2014. "External and macroeconomic adjustment in the larger euro area countries," Working Paper Series 1647, European Central Bank.
  4. Sanchez , Jose Luis Diaz & Varoudakis, Aristomene, 2013. "Growth and competitiveness as factors of Eurozone external imbalances : evidence and policy implications," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6732, The World Bank.
  5. Christoph Zwick, 2013. "Current Account Adjustment in the Euro-Zone: Lessons from a Flexible-Price-Model," Graz Economics Papers 2013-08, University of Graz, Department of Economics.

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