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Quality of Government and Living Standards

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  • Francesco Grigoli
  • Eduardo Ley

Abstract

It is generally acknowledged that the government’s output is difficult to define and its value is hard to measure. The practical solution, adopted by national accounts systems, is to equate output to input costs. However, several studies estimate significant inefficiencies in government activities (i.e., same output could be achieved with less inputs), implying that inputs are not a good approximation for outputs. If taken seriously, the next logical step is to purge from GDP the fraction of government inputs that is wasted. As differences in the quality of the public sector have a direct impact on citizens’ effective consumption of public and private goods and services, we must take them into account when computing a measure of living standards. We illustrate such a correction computing corrected per capita GDPs on the basis of two studies that estimate efficiency scores for several dimensions of government activities. We show that the correction could be significant, and rankings of living standards could be re-ordered as a result.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 12/182.

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Length: 21
Date of creation: 01 Jul 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:12/182

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Keywords: Governance; Government expenditures; living standards; national accounts; public spending; input-output; health care; health spending; public health; direct impact; public expenditure; income groups; household consumption; health care systems; level of health spending; analytical issues; health workers; public pensions; public health services; private services; health systems; infant mortality; health care system; medical staff; care systems; impact evaluations; data sources; health sector; health expenditure; efficiency of public spending;

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References

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  1. Gupta, Sanjeev & Kangur, Alvar & Papageorgiou, Chris & Wane, Abdoul, 2014. "Efficiency-Adjusted Public Capital and Growth," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 164-178.
  2. Dasgupta, Partha, 2001. "Human Well-Being and the Natural Environment," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199247882.
  3. Nazmul Chaudhury & Jeffrey S. Hammer, 2004. "Ghost Doctors: Absenteeism in Rural Bangladeshi Health Facilities," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 18(3), pages 423-441.
  4. Michael Kremer & Nazmul Chaudhury & F. Halsey Rogers & Karthik Muralidharan & Jeffrey Hammer, 2005. "Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 658-667, 04/05.
  5. Victoria Gunnarsson & Stéphane Carcillo & Marijn Verhoeven, 2007. "Education and Health in G7 Countries," IMF Working Papers 07/263, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Nazmul Chaudhury & Jeffrey Hammer & Michael Kremer & Karthik Muralidharan & F. Halsey Rogers, 2006. "Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 91-116, Winter.
  7. Angus Deaton & Alan Heston, 2008. "Understanding PPPs and PPP-based national accounts," Working Papers 1120, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
  8. Chaudhury, Nazmul & Hammer, Jeffrey S., 2003. "Ghost doctors - absenteeism in Bangladeshi health facilities," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3065, The World Bank.
  9. Jean Spinks & Bruce Hollingsworth, 2009. "Cross-country comparisons of technical efficiency of health production: a demonstration of pitfalls," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(4), pages 417-427.
  10. Francesco Grigoli & Eduardo Ley, 2012. "Quality of Government and Living Standards," IMF Working Papers 12/182, International Monetary Fund.
  11. Rajkumar, Andrew Sunil & Swaroop, Vinaya, 2008. "Public spending and outcomes: Does governance matter?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 96-111, April.
  12. Isabelle Joumard & Christophe André & Chantal Nicq, 2010. "Health Care Systems: Efficiency and Institutions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 769, OECD Publishing.
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Cited by:
  1. Musharraf Cyan & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & VIoleta Vulovic, 2013. "Measuring tax effort: Does the estimation approach matter and should effort be linked to expenditure goals?," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1308, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  2. Francesco Grigoli Author-Email: fgrigoli@imf.org Author-Name: Eduardo Ley Author-Email: eley@worldbank.org, 2012. "Quality of Government and Living Standards," World Bank - Economic Premise, The World Bank, issue 89, pages 1-6, September.
  3. Francesco Grigoli & Javier Kapsoli, 2013. "Waste Not, Want Not," IMF Working Papers 13/187, International Monetary Fund.

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