Financial Intermediation Costs in Low-Income Countries: The Role of Regulatory, Institutional, and Macroeconomic Factors
AbstractWe analyze factors driving persistently higher financial intermediation costs in low-income countries (LICs) relative to emerging market (EMs) country comparators. Using the net interest margin as a proxy for financial intermediation costs at the bank level, we find that within LICs a substantial part of the variation in interest margins can be explained by bank-specific factors: margins tend to increase with higher riskiness of credit portfolio, lower bank capitalization, and smaller bank size. Overall, we find that concentrated market structures and lack of competition in LICs banking systems and institutional weaknesses constitute the key impediments preventing financial intermediation costs from declining. Our results provide strong evidence that policies aimed at fostering banking competition and strengthening institutional frameworks can reduce intermediation costs in LICs.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 12/140.
Date of creation: 01 May 2012
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC USA
Phone: (202) 623-7000
Fax: (202) 623-4661
Web page: http://www.imf.org/external/pubind.htm
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Poghosyan, Tigran, 2013. "Financial intermediation costs in low income countries: The role of regulatory, institutional, and macroeconomic factors," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 92-110.
- G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
- G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
- O16 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-07-08 (All new papers)
- NEP-BAN-2012-07-08 (Banking)
- NEP-CBA-2012-07-08 (Central Banking)
- NEP-MAC-2012-07-08 (Macroeconomics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fungacova, Zuzana & Poghosyan, Tigran, 2009.
"Determinants of bank interest margins in Russia: Does bank ownership matter?,"
BOFIT Discussion Papers
22/2009, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
- Fungáčová, Zuzana & Poghosyan, Tigran, 2011. "Determinants of bank interest margins in Russia: Does bank ownership matter?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 481-495.
- Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2004.
"Regulations, market structure, institutions, and the cost of financial intermediation,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 593-626.
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2004. "Regulations, Market Structure, Institutions, and the Cost of Financial Intermediation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 593-622, June.
- Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2003. "Regulations, Market Structure, Institutions, and the Cost of Financial Intermediation," NBER Working Papers 9890, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Maudos, Joaquin & Fernandez de Guevara, Juan, 2004.
"Factors explaining the interest margin in the banking sectors of the European Union,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2259-2281, September.
- Maudos, Joaquin & Fernandez de Guevara, Juan, 2003. "Factors Explaining the Interest Margin in the Banking Sectors of the European Union," MPRA Paper 15252, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, .
"Financial Dependence and Growth,"
CRSP working papers
344, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Barth, James R. & Caprio Jr, Gerard & Levine, Ross, 2001. "The regulation and supervision of banks around the world - a new database," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2588, The World Bank.
- Ho, Thomas S. Y. & Saunders, Anthony, 1981. "The Determinants of Bank Interest Margins: Theory and Empirical Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(04), pages 581-600, November.
- Barajas, Adolfo & Steiner, Roberto & Salazar, Natalia, 2000. "The impact of liberalization and foreign investment in Colombia's financial sector," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 157-196, October.
- James R. Barth & Gerard Caprio, Jr. & Ross Levine, 2002.
"Bank Regulation and Supervision: What Works Best?,"
NBER Working Papers
9323, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barth, James R. & Caprio Jr., Gerard & Levine, Ross, 2001. "Bank regulation and supervision : what works best?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2725, The World Bank.
- Beck, Thorsten & Hesse, Heiko, 2009. "Why are interest spreads so high in Uganda?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 192-204, March.
- Bun, Maurice J.G. & Kiviet, Jan F., 2006.
"The effects of dynamic feedbacks on LS and MM estimator accuracy in panel data models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 132(2), pages 409-444, June.
- Maurice J.G. Bun & Jan F. Kiviet, 2002. "The Effects of Dynamic Feedbacks on LS and MM Estimator Accuracy in Panel Data Models," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-101/4, Tinbergen Institute, revised 19 Feb 2004.
- Allen, Linda, 1988. "The Determinants of Bank Interest Margins: A Note," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(02), pages 231-235, June.
- Adolfo Barajas & Natalia Salazar & Roberto Steiner, 1999. "Foreign Investment in Colombia's Financial Sector," IMF Working Papers 99/150, International Monetary Fund.
- Brock, Philip L. & Rojas Suarez, Liliana, 2000. "Understanding the behavior of bank spreads in Latin America," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 113-134, October.
- Kazuhiko Hayakawa, 2005.
"Small Sample Bias Propreties of the System GMM Estimator in Dynamic Panel Data Models,"
Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series
d05-82, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Hayakawa, Kazuhiko, 2007. "Small sample bias properties of the system GMM estimator in dynamic panel data models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 32-38, April.
- Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A. & Levine, R., 2000.
"A new database on financial development and structure,"
Open Access publications from Tilburg University
urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125518, Tilburg University.
- Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 1999. "A new database on financial development and structure," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2146, The World Bank.
- Ruby Randall, 1998. "Interest Rate Spreads in the Eastern Caribbean," IMF Working Papers 98/59, International Monetary Fund.
- Claessens, Stijn & Demirguc-Kunt, Asl[iota] & Huizinga, Harry, 2001. "How does foreign entry affect domestic banking markets?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 891-911, May.
- Jayaratne, Jith & Strahan, Philip E, 1996. "The Finance-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Bank Branch Deregulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(3), pages 639-70, August.
- Poghosyan, Tigran, 2010. "Re-examining the impact of foreign bank participation on interest margins in emerging markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 390-403, December.
- Khemraj, Tarron, 2013. "Bank liquidity preference and the investment demand constraint," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 977-990.
- Wahyoe Soedarmono & Amine Tarazi, 2013.
"Bank Opacity, Intermediation Cost and Globalization: Evidence from a Sample of Publicly Traded Banks in Asia,"
- Soedarmono, Wahyoe & Tarazi, Amine, 2013. "Bank opacity, intermediation cost and globalization: Evidence from a sample of publicly traded banks in Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 91-100.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jim Beardow) or (Hassan Zaidi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.