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Bank Ownership and the Effects of Financial Liberalization

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Author Info

  • Poonam Gupta
  • Kalpana Kochhar
  • Sanjaya Panth

Abstract

Do financial sector reforms necessarily result in expansion of credit to the private sector? How does bank ownership affect the availability of credit to the private sector? Empirical evidence is somewhat mixed on these issues. We use the Indian experience with liberalization of the financial sector to inform this debate. Using bank-level data from 1991-2007, we ask whether public and private banks deployed resources freed up by reduced state preemption to increase credit to the private sector. We find that even after liberalization, public banks allocated a larger share of their assets to government securities than did private banks. Crucially, we also find that public banks were more responsive in allocating relatively more resources to finance the fiscal deficit even during periods when state pre-emption (measured in terms of the requirement to hold government securities as a share of assets) formally declined. These findings suggest that in developing countries, where alternative channels of financing may be limited, government ownership of banks, combined with high fiscal deficits, may limit the gains from financial liberalization.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 11/50.

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Length: 45
Date of creation: 01 Mar 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:11/50

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Related research

Keywords: Credit; Banks; Credit expansion; Financial sector; government securities; banking; investment in government securities; banking sector; state bank; return on assets; bank credit; reserve requirement; bank ownership; national bank; money market; reserve requirements; liquidity ratio; investments in government securities; banking reforms; share of government securities; private bank; capital requirement; monetary fund; cooperative bank; reserve ratio; bank assets; holdings of government securities; banking assets; resource allocation; bank investments; banking sector assets; bank money; banking regulations; bank rate; central bank; government finance; bank money market; working capital; liability management; bank lending behavior; small bank; bank finance; bank size; banking system; foreign exchange; bank data; bankers; banks ? balance sheets; banking reform; bank nationalization; bank groups; banks ? assets; bank financing; banking statistics; government securities market; savings account; recapitalization; bank lending; foreign exchange market; money supply;

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References

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  1. Galindo, Arturo & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Weiss, Andrew, 2007. "Does financial liberalization improve the allocation of investment?: Micro-evidence from developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 562-587, July.
  2. Hauner, David, 2009. "Public debt and financial development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 171-183, January.
  3. Hauner, David, 2008. "Credit to government and banking sector performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1499-1507, August.
  4. Abdul Abiad & Enrica Detragiache & Thierry Tressel, 2010. "A New Database of Financial Reforms," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 57(2), pages 281-302, June.
  5. Abhijit V. Banerjee & Shawn Cole & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Banking Reform in India," India Policy Forum, Global Economy and Development Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 1(1), pages 277-332.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Eichengreen, Barry & Gupta, Poonam, 2012. "Exports of Services: Indian Experience in Perspective," MPRA Paper 37409, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Gupta, Poonam & Kumar, Utsav, 2010. "Performance of Indian Manufacturing in the Post Reform Period," MPRA Paper 24898, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Eichengreen, Barry & Gupta, Poonam, 2012. "The Global Financial Crisis and Indian Banks: Survival of the Fittest?," Working Papers 12/113, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
  4. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsieh, Meng-Fen, 2014. "Bank reforms, foreign ownership, and financial stability," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 204-224.
  5. Eichengreen, Barry & Gupta, Poonam, 2013. "The financial crisis and Indian banks: Survival of the fittest?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 138-152.

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