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Policy Instruments to Lean Against the Wind in Latin America

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  • International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper reviews policy tools that have been used and/or are available for policy makers in the region to lean against the wind and review relevant country experiences using them. The instruments examined include: (i) capital requirements, dynamic provisioning, and leverage ratios; (ii) liquidity requirements; (iii) debt-to-income ratios; (iv) loan-to-value ratios; (v) reserve requirements on bank liabilities (deposits and nondeposits); (vi) instruments to manage and limit systemic foreign exchange risk; and, finally, (vii) reserve requirements or taxes on capital inflows. Although the instruments analyzed are mainly microprudential in nature, appropriately calibrated over the financial cycle they may serve for macroprudential purposes.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 11/159.

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Length: 113
Date of creation: 01 Jul 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:11/159

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Related research

Keywords: Reserve requirements; Banking sector; Capital controls; Capital flows; Latin America; Risk management; financial system; foreign exchange; banking; bank liabilities; financial excesses; foreign exchange market; financial institutions; excess demand; off balance sheet; bank deposits; derivatives markets; probability of default; derivatives transaction; banking system;

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References

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  1. Marco Burroni & Mario Quagliariello & Emiliano Sabatini & Vincenzo Tola, 2009. "Dynamic provisioning: rationale, functioning, and prudential treatment," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 57, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  2. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello & Crocker Liu, 2006. "The Financial Accelerator: Evidence from International Housing Markets," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 10(3), pages 321-352, September.
  3. Pau Rabanal & Christopher W. Crowe & Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Deniz Igan, 2011. "How to Deal with Real Estate Booms," IMF Working Papers 11/91, International Monetary Fund.
  4. Bikker, J.A. & Metzemakers, P.A.J., 2005. "Bank provisioning behaviour and procyclicality," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 141-157, April.
  5. Ronel Elul & Nicholas S. Souleles & Souphala Chomsisengphet & Dennis & Glennon & Robert Hunt, 2010. "What "triggers" mortgage default?," Working Papers 10-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  6. Olivier J. Blanchard & Mitali Das & Hamid Faruqee, 2010. "The Initial Impact of the Crisis on Emerging Market Countries," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 41(1 (Spring), pages 263-323.
  7. Reinhart, Carmen M & Reinhart, Vincent R, 1999. "On the Use of Reserve Requirements in Dealing with Capital Flow Problems," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(1), pages 27-54, January.
  8. Berkmen, S. Pelin & Gelos, Gaston & Rennhack, Robert & Walsh, James P., 2012. "The global financial crisis: Explaining cross-country differences in the output impact," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 42-59.
  9. De Gregorio, Jose & Edwards, Sebastian & Valdes, Rodrigo O., 2000. "Controls on capital inflows: do they work?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 59-83, October.
  10. Mathias Drehmann & Claudio Borio & Leonardo Gambacorta & Gabriel Jiminez & Carlos Trucharte, 2010. "Countercyclical capital buffers: exploring options," BIS Working Papers 317, Bank for International Settlements.
  11. Benedict J. Clements & Herman Kamil, 2009. "Are Capital Controls Effective in the 21st Century? the Recent Experience of Colombia," IMF Working Papers 09/30, International Monetary Fund.
  12. Nicolas E. Magud & Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2011. "Capital Controls: Myth and Reality - A Portfolio Balance Approach," NBER Working Papers 16805, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Cyntia F. Azevedo & Fabia A. de Carvalho, 2004. "The Incidence of Reserve Requirements in Brazil: do Stockholders Share the Burden?," Working papers - Textos para Discussao do Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia 319, Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia.
  14. Karen E. Dynan, 2009. "Changing Household Financial Opportunities and Economic Security," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(4), pages 49-68, Fall.
  15. Armas, Adrian, 2009. "Crisis financiera internacional y el crédito en el Perú," Revista Moneda, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 142, pages 18-21.
  16. Jorge Iván Canales Kriljenko, 2004. "Foreign Exchange Market Organization in Selected Developing and Transition Economies," IMF Working Papers 04/4, International Monetary Fund.
  17. Antonio Garcia Pascual & Jorge Cayazzo & Socorro Heysen & Eva Gutierrez, 2006. "Toward An Effective Supervision of Partially Dollarized Banking Systems," IMF Working Papers 06/32, International Monetary Fund.
  18. Neil Bhutta & Jane Dokko & Hui Shan, 2010. "The depth of negative equity and mortgage default decisions," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2010-35, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Nicolas E. Magud & Esteban Vesperoni & Carmen Reinhart, 2012. "Capital Inflows, Exchange Rate Flexibility, and Credit Booms," IMF Working Papers 12/41, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Reserve Requirements," WIFO Working Papers 420, WIFO.
  3. Bank for International Settlements, 2012. "Operationalising the selection and application of macroprudential instruments," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 48, January.
  4. Adrián Armas & Paul Castillo & Marco Vega, 2014. "Inflation Targeting and Quantitative Tightening: Effects of Reserve Requirements in Peru," IDB Publications 84714, Inter-American Development Bank.
  5. Fernando Arias & Daira Garrido & Daniel Parra & Hernán Rincón, 2012. "¿Responden los diferentes tipos de flujos de capitales a los mismos fundamentos y en el mismo grado? Evidencia reciente para países emergentes," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 009764, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  6. International Monetary Fund, 2012. "Credit Growth and the Effectiveness of Reserve Requirements and Other Macroprudential Instruments in Latin America," IMF Working Papers 12/142, International Monetary Fund.
  7. luis Fernando Melo & Hernán Rincón, 2012. "Choques externos y precios de los activos en Latinoamérica antes y después de la quiebra de Lehman Brothers," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 009450, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  8. Patrick A. Imam & Erlend Nier & Luis Ignacio Jácome, 2012. "Building Blocks for Effective Macroprudential Policies in Latin America," IMF Working Papers 12/183, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Mynor Meza & Fernando L Delgado, 2011. "Developments in Financial Supervision and the Use of Macroprudential Measures in Central America," IMF Working Papers 11/299, International Monetary Fund.
  10. Ocampo, Jose Antonio, 2012. "The Development Implications of External Integration in Latin America," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  11. Lambert, F. & Ramos-Tallada, J. & Rebillard, C., 2011. "Capital controls and spillover effects: evidence from Latin-American countries," Working papers 357, Banque de France.
  12. Tovar, Camilo & Garcia-Escribano, Mercedes & Vera, Mercedes, 2012. "El crecimiento del crédito y la efectividad de los requerimientos de encaje y otros instrumentos macroprudenciales en América Latina," Revista Estudios Económicos, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 24, pages 45-64.

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