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The Hedonic Country Product Dummy Method and Quality Adjustments for Purchasing Power Parity Calculations

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  • Mick Silver

Abstract

The 2005 International Comparison Program''s (ICP) estimates of economy-wide purchasing power parity (PPP) are based on parity estimates for 155 basic expenditure headings, mainly estimated using country product dummy (CPD) regressions. The estimates are potentially inefficient and open to omitted variable bias for two reasons. First, they use average prices across outlets as the left-hand-side variable. Second, quality-adjusted prices of non-comparable replacements, required when products in outlets do not match the required specifications, cannot be effectively included. This paper provides an analytical framework based on panel data and hedonic CPD regressions for ameliorating these sources of bias and inefficiency.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 09/271.

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Length: 28
Date of creation: 01 Dec 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:09/271

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Keywords: Purchasing power parity; Consumer price indexes; Economic models; Price structures; Prices; silver; equation; statistics; econometrics; logarithms; dummy variable; dummy variables; correlation; standard errors; equations; instrumental variable; autocorrelation; covariance; missing observations; fixed effects estimator; measurement error; sample sizes; logarithmic functions; regression analysis; arithmetic; lead; missing data; regression equation; sample size; sampling; number theory; statistic; computation; correlations; samples;

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References

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  1. D. S. Prasada Rao, 2005. "On The Equivalence Of Weighted Country-Product-Dummy (Cpd) Method And The Rao-System For Multilateral Price Comparisons," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 51(4), pages 571-580, December.
  2. Alan Heston & Robert E. Lipsey, 1999. "International and Interarea Comparisons of Income, Output, and Prices," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number hest99-1.
  3. Mary F. Kokoski & Brent R. Moulton & Kimberly D. Zieschang, 1999. "Interarea Price Comparisons for Heterogeneous Goods and Several Levels of Commodity Aggregation," NBER Chapters, in: International and Interarea Comparisons of Income, Output, and Prices, pages 123-169 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Evans, William N & Froeb, Luke M & Werden, Gregory J, 1993. "Endogeneity in the Concentration-Price Relationship: Causes, Consequences, and Cures," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(4), pages 431-38, December.
  5. Viliam Druska & William C. Horrace, 2002. "Generalized Moments Estimation for Spatial Panel Data: Indonesian Rice Farming," Econometrics 0206004, EconWPA, revised 11 May 2003.
  6. Sickles, Robin C., 2005. "Panel estimators and the identification of firm-specific efficiency levels in parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric settings," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 305-334, June.
  7. W. Erwin Diewert, 1996. "Axiomatic and Economic Approaches to International Comparisons," NBER Working Papers 5559, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. W. E. Diewert & Mick Silver & Saeed Heravi, 2007. "Hedonic Imputation Versus Time Dummy Hedonic Indexes," IMF Working Papers 07/234, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Dhrymes, Phoebus J. & Lleras-Muney, Adriana, 2006. "Estimation of models with grouped and ungrouped data by means of "2SLS"," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(1), pages 1-29, July.
  10. Baltagi, Badi H., 1981. "Pooling : An experimental study of alternative testing and estimation procedures in a two-way error component model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 21-49, September.
  11. Silver, Mick & Heravi, Saeed, 2002. "A failure in the measurement of inflation: results from a hedonic and matched experiment using scanner data," Working Paper Series 0144, European Central Bank.
  12. Baltagi, Badi H. & Bresson, Georges & Pirotte, Alain, 2003. "Fixed effects, random effects or Hausman-Taylor?: A pretest estimator," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 361-369, June.
  13. J. R. Cuthbert & M. Cuthbert, 1988. "On Aggregation Methods of Purchasing Power Parities," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 56, OECD Publishing.
  14. D.S. Prasada Rao, 2004. "The Country-Product-Dummy Method: A Stochastic Approach to the Computation of Purchasing Power Parities in the ICP," CEPA Working Papers Series WP032004, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
  15. Ariel Pakes, 2003. "A Reconsideration of Hedonic Price Indexes with an Application to PC's," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(5), pages 1578-1596, December.
  16. Mick Silver & Saeed Heravi, 2006. "Why Elementary Price Index Number Formulas Differ," IMF Working Papers 06/174, International Monetary Fund.
  17. Moulton, Brent R., 1986. "Random group effects and the precision of regression estimates," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 385-397, August.
  18. Ernst R. Berndt & Neal J. Rappaport, 2001. "Price and Quality of Desktop and Mobile Personal Computers: A Quarter-Century Historical Overview," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 268-273, May.
  19. Baltagi, Badi H & Levin, Dan, 1986. "Estimating Dynamic Demand for Cigarettes Using Panel Data: The Effects of Bootlegging, Taxation and Advertising Reconsidered," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(1), pages 148-55, February.
  20. Christos Ioannidis & Mick Silver, 1999. "Estimating exact hedonic indexes: An application to UK television sets," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 69(1), pages 71-94, February.
  21. Teekens, R & Koerts, J, 1972. "Some Statistical Implications of the Log Transformation of Multiplicative Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 40(5), pages 793-819, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Mick Silver, 2010. "IMF Applications of Purchasing Power Parity Estimates," IMF Working Papers 10/253, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Robert J. Hill & Iqbal A. Syed, 2012. "Accounting for Unrepresentative Products and Urban-Rural Price Differences in International Comparisons of Real Income: An Application to the Asia-Pacific Region," Graz Economics Papers 2012-07, University of Graz, Department of Economics.
  3. Robert J. Hill & Iqbal Syed, 2010. "Improving International Comparisons of Real Output: The ICP 2005 Benchmark and its Implications for China," Discussion Papers 2010-25, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.

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