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Informality and Bank Credit

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Author Info

  • Junko Koeda
  • Era Dabla-Norris

Abstract

The paper relies on a firm-level data on transition economies to examine the relationship between informality and bank credit. We find evidence that informality is robustly and significantly associated with lower access to and use of bank credit. We also find that higher tax compliance costs reduce firms'' reliance on bank credit, while a stronger quality of the legal environment is associated with higher access to credit even for financially opaque informal firms. An interactive term between a country-wide measure of tax compliance costs and the level of informal activity is negative and significant, suggesting that the negative association between informality and bank credit is stronger in countries with weak tax administration.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 08/94.

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Length: 37
Date of creation: 01 Apr 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:08/94

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Related research

Keywords: Bank credit; Transition economies; Tax administration; Economic models; dummy variable; working capital; survey; probability; bank financing; standard errors; statistics; correlation; external auditor; bank finance; instrumental variables; predictions; banking; bank policy; equations; empirical model; correlations; bank loans; equation; bank records; dummy variables; retained earnings; predictability; independent variables; national bank; bank loan; banking system; maximum likelihood estimation; prediction; banking operations; instrumental variable; bank borrowing; government agency; logarithm; probabilities;

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

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  1. David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2008. "Experimental Evidence on Returns to Capital and Access to Finance in Mexico," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(3), pages 457-482, November.
  2. McMillan, John & Woodruff, Christopher, 1998. "Inter-Firm Relationships and Informal Credit in Vietnam," CEPR Discussion Papers 2036, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Love, Inessa & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2004. "Business Environment and the Incorporation Decision," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3317, The World Bank.
  4. Brown, Martin & Jappelli, Tullio & Pagano, Marco, 2008. "Information Sharing and Credit: Firm-Level Evidence from Transition Countries," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Zurich 2008 3, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  5. Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & McMillan, John & Woodruff, Christopher, 2000. "Why do firms hide? Bribes and unofficial activity after communism," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 495-520, June.
  6. Era Dabla-Norris & Gabriela Inchauste, 2008. "Informality and Regulations: What Drives the Growth of Firms?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 55(1), pages 50-82, April.
  7. Gatti, Roberta & Honorati, Maddalena, 2008. "Informality among formal firms : firm-level, cross-country evidence on tax compliance and access to credit," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4476, The World Bank.
  8. Stephane Straub, 2004. "Informal Sector: The Credit Market Channel," ESE Discussion Papers 101, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  9. Safavian, Mehnaz & Wimpey, Joshua, 2007. "When do enterprises prefer informal credit ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4435, The World Bank.
  10. Levine, Ross, 2005. "Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 865-934 Elsevier.
  11. RAFAEL LaPORTA & FLORENCIO LOPEZ-de-SILANES & ANDREI SHLEIFER & ROBERT W. VISHNY, . "Legal Determinants of External Finance,"," CRSP working papers 324, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  12. Loayza, Norman V., 1996. "The economics of the informal sector: a simple model and some empirical evidence from Latin America," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 129-162, December.
  13. Dabla-Norris, Era & Gradstein, Mark & Inchauste, Gabriela, 2008. "What causes firms to hide output? The determinants of informality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 1-27, February.
  14. Schneider, Friedrich G., 2007. "Shadow economies and corruption all over the world: what do we really know?," Economics Discussion Papers 2007-9, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  15. Simon Johnson & John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 2002. "Property Rights and Finance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1335-1356, December.
  16. Roger Gordon & Wei Li, 2005. "Tax Structure in Developing Countries: Many Puzzles and a Possible Explanation," NBER Working Papers 11267, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Friedman, Eric & Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo, 2000. "Dodging the grabbing hand: the determinants of unofficial activity in 69 countries," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 459-493, June.
  18. Klapper, Leora & Laeven, Luc & Rajan, Raghuram, 2006. "Entry regulation as a barrier to entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 591-629, December.
  19. Fajnzylber, Pablo & Maloney, William F. & Rojas, Gabriel V. Montes, 2006. "Releasing constraints to growth or pushing on a string ? the impact of credit, training, business associations, and taxes on the performance of Mexican micro-firms," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3807, The World Bank.
  20. Simeon Djankov & Caralee McLiesh & Andrei Shleifer, 2005. "Private Credit in 129 Countries," NBER Working Papers 11078, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2005. "Financial and Legal Constraints to Growth: Does Firm Size Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 137-177, 02.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Zhou, Fujin & Oostendorp, Remco, 2011. "Measuring true sales and underreporting with matched firm-level survey and tax-office data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5628, The World Bank.
  2. Ceyhun Elgin & Oguz Oztunali, 2013. "Institutions, Informal Economy and Economic Development," Working Papers 2013/03, Bogazici University, Department of Economics.
  3. Andreas Madestam, 2008. "Informal Finance: A Theory of Moneylenders," Working Papers 347, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.

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