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Household Income As a Determinant of Child Labor and School Enrollment in Brazil

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Author Info

  • Irineu E. Carvalho Filho

Abstract

This paper studies the effects of household income on labor participation and school enrollment of children aged 10 to 14 in Brazil using a social security reform as a source of exogenous variation in household income. Estimates imply that the gap between actual and full school enrollment was reduced by 20 percent for girls living in the same household as an elderly benefiting from the reform. Girls'' labor participation rates reduced with increased benefit income, but only when benefits were received by a female elderly. Effects on boys'' enrollment rates and labor participation were in general smaller and statistically insignificant.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 08/241.

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Length: 36
Date of creation: 01 Oct 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:08/241

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Keywords: Income distribution; Women; Human capital; child labor; benefits; wage; minimum wage; younger siblings; school attendance; child labour; child care; younger children; labor income; older children; child health; age of head of household; young children; family members; wage rates; living standards; child workers; living conditions; extended families; young adults; working children;

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References

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  1. Behrman, Jere R & Birdsall, Nancy, 1983. "The Quality of Schooling: Quantity Alone is Misleading," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 928-46, December.
  2. Alan Krueger, 1996. "Observations on International Labor Standards and Trade," Working Papers, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section. 741, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  3. John Shea, 1997. "Does Parents' Money Matter?," NBER Working Papers 6026, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  5. Victoria Hosegood & Anne Case & Cally Ardington, 2009. "Labor Supply Responses to Large Social Transfers: Longitudinal Evidence from South Africa," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 22-48, January.
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  7. Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-56, April.
  8. Duryea, Suzanne & Lam, David & Levison, Deborah, 2007. "Effects of economic shocks on children's employment and schooling in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 188-214, September.
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  12. Donald M. Pianto & Sergei Soares, 2004. "Use Of Survey Design For The Evaluation Of Social Programs: The Pnad And Peti," Anais do XXXII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 32th Brazilian Economics Meeting], ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of G 133, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  13. Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
  14. Eliana Cardoso & Andre Portela Souza, 2004. "The Impact of Cash Transfers on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics 0407, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  15. World Bank, 2001. "Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15465, The World Bank.
  16. Thomas, D. & Schoeni, R.F. & Strauss, J., 1996. "Parental Investments in Schooling: The Roles of Gender and Resources in Urban Brazil," Papers, RAND - Labor and Population Program 96-02, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
  17. repec:fth:prinin:362 is not listed on IDEAS
  18. Kruger, Diana I., 2007. "Coffee production effects on child labor and schooling in rural Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 448-463, March.
  19. FranÁois Bourguignon & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Phillippe G. Leite, 2003. "Conditional Cash Transfers, Schooling, and Child Labor: Micro-Simulating Brazil's Bolsa Escola Program," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 229-254, December.
  20. Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
  21. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
  22. Jean-Marie Baland & James A. Robinson, 2000. "Is Child Labor Inefficient?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(4), pages 663-679, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Armando Barrientos, 2002. "Old age, poverty and social investment," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(8), pages 1133-1141.
  2. Palacios, Robert & Sluchynsky, Oleksiy, 2006. "Social pensions Part I : their role in the overall pension system," Social Protection Discussion Papers 36237, The World Bank.
  3. Barrientos, Armando, 2002. "Women, Informal Employment, and Social Protection in Latin America," General Discussion Papers, University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM) 30557, University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM).
  4. Vladimir Ponczek, 2007. "Income And Bargaining Effects On Education And Health In Brazil," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting], ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Gr 128, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  5. Barrientos, Armando, 2002. "Comparing Pension Schemes in Chile, Singapore, Brazil and South Africa," General Discussion Papers, University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM) 30560, University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM).
  6. Abhijit Banerjee, 2007. "Educational Policy and the Economics of the Family," Working Papers id:1186, eSocialSciences.
  7. Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 27872, The World Bank.
  8. Ousmane Faye, 2007. "Basic Pensions and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa," CREPP Working Papers 0707, Centre de Recherche en Economie Publique et de la Population (CREPP) (Research Center on Public and Population Economics) HEC-Management School, University of Liège.

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