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Financial Dollarization in Latin America

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  • Robert Rennhack
  • Masahiro Nozaki
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    Abstract

    This paper tests several explanations for financial dollarization (FD), with an emphasis on Latin America. The results provide evidence that FD is a rational response to inflation uncertainty. The paper builds on previous research by finding that an exchange rate policy biased towards currency depreciation and currency mismatches tends to contribute to high FD and that FD is highly persistent. These results suggest that countries with significant FD should encourage the use of domestic currency by maintaining macroeconomic stability; allowing more exchange rate flexibility and less bias towards currency depreciation; and adapting prudential regulations to ensure that costs associated with FD are fully internalized in financial contracts. At the same time, restoring confidence in the domestic currency may take many years of sound policies.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 06/7.

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    Length: 36
    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2006
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:06/7

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    Related research

    Keywords: Dollarization; Credit risk; Latin America; Flexible exchange rates; Exchange rate depreciation; foreign currency; exchange rate; inflation; exchange rate flexibility; real exchange rate; high inflation; nominal exchange rate; currency appreciation; foreign exchange earnings; exchange earnings; currency units; real value; rates of inflation; exchange risk; exchange rate policy; foreign exchange; monetary policy; currency depreciation; currency substitution; macroeconomic stability; real exchange rate depreciation; limited exchange rate flexibility; exchange rates; average inflation; nominal exchange rate depreciation; rate of inflation; low inflation; monetary economics; exchange rate movements; rise in inflation; currency risk; foreign exchange risk; exchange rate regimes; variable inflation; flexible exchange rate; exchange rate peg; inflation rate; flexible exchange rate regimes;

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    References

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    1. Adam Bennett & Eduardo Borensztein & Tomás J. T. Baliño, 1999. "Monetary Policy in Dollarized Economies," IMF Occasional Papers 171, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Morris Goldstein & Philip Turner, 2004. "Controlling Currency Mismatches in Emerging Markets," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 373.
    3. Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    4. de la Torre, Augusto & Schmukler & Sergio L., 2004. "Coping with risk through mismatches : domestic and international financial contracts for emerging economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3212, The World Bank.
    5. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff & Miguel A. Savastano, 2003. "Addicted to Dollars," CEMA Working Papers 594, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
    6. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
    7. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo, 2002. "Fear of floating," MPRA Paper 14000, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Alain Ize, 2005. "Financial Dollarization Equilibria," IMF Working Papers 05/186, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Pablo E. Guidotti & Carlos A. Rodriguez, 1992. "Dollarization in Latin America: Gresham's Law in Reverse?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 518-544, September.
    10. De Nicolo, Gianni & Honohan, Patrick & Ize, Alain, 2003. "Dollarization of the banking system : good or bad?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3116, The World Bank.
    11. Martin Uribe, 1995. "Hysteresis in a simple model of currency substitution," International Finance Discussion Papers 509, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Marina Tkalec, 2013. "The Dynamics of Deposit Euroization in European Post-Transition Countries: Evidence from Threshold VAR," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1, pages 66-83.
    2. Edmar L. Bacha & Márcio Holland & Fernando M. Gonçalves, 2007. "Is Brazil Different? Risk, Dollarization, And Interest In Emerging Markets," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 028, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    3. Kyriakos C. Neanidis & Christos S. Savva, 2009. "Financial Dollarization: Short-Run Determinants in Transition Economies," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 113, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
    4. Sánchez, Alan, 2007. "Dolarización financiera, el enfoque de portafolio y expectativas: Evidencia para América Latina (1995-2005)," Revista Estudios Económicos, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 14, pages 107-130.
    5. Marijana Ivanov & Marina Tkalec & Maruška Vizek, 2011. "The Determinants of Financial Euroization in a Post-Transition Country: Do Threshold Effects Matter?," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 61(3), pages 230-251, July.
    6. Carlos Eduardo León Rincón & Alejandro Reveiz Herault, 2008. "La dolarización financiera:Experiencia internacional y perspectivas para Colombia," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 004510, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    7. Kyriakos C. Neanidis & Christos S. Savva, 2013. "Institutions and Financial Dollarization: Indirect Effects based on a Policy Experiment," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 187, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
    8. Sok Heng Lay & Makoto Kakinaka & Koji Kotani, 2010. "Exchange Rate Movements in a Dollarized Economy: The Case of Cambodia," Working Papers EMS_2010_18, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
    9. Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2007. "Disentangling business cycles and macroeconomic policy in Mercosur: a VAR and unobserved components model approaches," Post-Print halshs-00238495, HAL.
    10. Fabricio De Assis Campos Vieira & Márcio Holland & Marco Flávio Da Cunha Resende, 2014. "Financial Dollarization And Systemicrisks: New Empirical Evidence," Anais do XL Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 40th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 040, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    11. Márcio Holland & Edmar L. Bacha & Fernando M. Gonçalves, 2007. "Is Brazil Different? Risk, Dollarization, and Interest Rates in Emerging Markets," IMF Working Papers 07/294, International Monetary Fund.

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