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The Myth of Post-Reform Income Stagnation in Brazil

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  • Irineu E. Carvalho Filho
  • Marcos Chamon

Abstract

This paper uses Engel curves to estimate real income growth in Brazil. The estimated per capita household real income growth in metropolitan areas during 1987-2002 is about 4½ percent per year, well above the "headline" growth of 1½ percent obtained by deflating nominal incomes by the CPI. This suggests a substantial CPI bias during that period, likely owing to one-off effects of trade liberalization and inflation stabilization. The estimated unmeasured gains are higher for poorer households, implying a marked reduction in "real" inequality. This finding challenges the conventional wisdom that post-reform real income growth in Brazil was low.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 06/275.

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Length: 34
Date of creation: 01 Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:06/275

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Related research

Keywords: Income; Consumer price indexes; expenditure; expenditures; total expenditure; income growth; expenditure distribution; household expenditure; expenditure data; household income; household characteristics; expenditure level; distribution of expenditure; aggregate consumption; consumer price index; household expenditures; expenditure shares; expenditure inequality; household consumption; expenditure quintile; expenditure survey; consumption patterns; labor income; relative price changes; total expenditures; expenditure growth; consumer demand; permanent income; consumption basket; household budget; expenditure share; expenditure patterns; expenditure information; income data; income inequality; expenditure levels;

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References

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  1. Jerry Hausman, 2003. "Sources of Bias and Solutions to Bias in the Consumer Price Index," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(1), pages 23-44, Winter.
  2. Beatty, Timothy K.M. & Larsen, Erling Roed, 2004. "Using Engel Curves To Estimate Bias In The Canadian Cpi As A Cost Of Living Index," Working Papers 15836, University of British Columbia, Food and Resource Economics.
  3. Goni, Edwin & Lopez, Humberto & Serven, Luis, 2006. "Getting realabout inequality : evidence from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3815, The World Bank.
  4. Easterly, William & Loayza, Norman & Montiel, Peter, 1997. "Has Latin America's post-reform growth been disappointing?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3-4), pages 287-311, November.
  5. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-26, June.
  6. Mark Bils & Peter J. Klenow, 2001. "Quantifying Quality Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 1006-1030, September.
  7. Yatchew, A., 1997. "An elementary estimator of the partial linear model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 135-143, December.
  8. de Carvalho Filho, Irineu Evangelista, 2008. "Old-age benefits and retirement decisions of rural elderly in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 129-146, April.
  9. Pedro Cavalcanti Ferreira & JosÈ Luiz Rossi, 2003. "New Evidence from Brazil on Trade Liberalization and Productivity Growth," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(4), pages 1383-1405, November.
  10. Angus Deaton & Valerie Kozel, 2005. "Data and Dogma: The Great Indian Poverty Debate," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 20(2), pages 177-199.
  11. Jeffrey Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Progress of Global Integration," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1733, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
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