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Grants Versus Loans

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Author Info

  • Hulya Ulku
  • Tito Cordella

Abstract

Under what conditions should grants be preferred to loans? To answer this question, we present a simple model à la Krugman (1988) and show that, for any given level of developmental assistance, the optimal degree of loan concessionality is positively associated with economic growth if countries are poor, have bad policies, and high debt obligations. We then test our model by estimating a modified growth model for a panel of developing countries, and find evidence supporting our predictions. Finally, we assess the determinants of current aid allocations and find that the degree of concessionality is negatively correlated with countries'' levels of development.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 04/161.

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Length: 31
Date of creation: 01 Sep 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:04/161

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Related research

Keywords: Development; Economic growth; Economic models; statistics; outliers; samples; predictions; indebted countries; correlation; highly indebted countries; autocorrelation; equation; sovereign debt; foreign aid; external debt; finite sample; budget balance; standard deviation; debt obligations; donor governments; equations; dummy variable; econometrics; debt service payments; national debt; debt relief; instrumental variable; external obligations; amount of debt; stata; public sector management; time series; significance level; standard errors; monte carlo simulations; logarithm; debt service; debt overhang; international lending; stock of debt; bilateral loans; sample bias; debt burden; debt rescheduling;

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

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  1. Beck, T.H.L. & Levine, R. & Loayza, N., 2000. "Financial intermediation and growth: Causality and causes," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125519, Tilburg University.
  2. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman, 2000. "Finance and the sources of growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 261-300.
  3. Alberto Alesina & David Dollar, 1998. "Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?," NBER Working Papers 6612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  5. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Tito Cordella, 2002. "Limits of Conditionality in Poverty Reduction Programs," IMF Working Papers 02/115, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Azam, Jean-Paul & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 2003. "Contracting for aid," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 25-58, February.
  7. Svensson, Jakob, 2000. "Foreign aid and rent-seeking," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 437-461, August.
  8. Sanford, Jonathan E., 2002. "World Bank: IDA Loans or IDA Grants?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 741-762, May.
  9. Frank Windmeijer, 2000. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear two-step GMM estimators," IFS Working Papers W00/19, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  10. Frey, Bruno S. & Schneider, Friedrich, 1986. "Competing models of international lending activity," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 225-245, March.
  11. Murshed, S Mansoob & Sen, Somnath, 1995. "Aid Conditionality and Military Expenditure Reduction in Developing Countries: Models of Asymmetric Information," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(429), pages 498-509, March.
  12. Matthew Odedokun, 2004. "Multilateral and Bilateral Loans versus Grants: Issues and Evidence," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(2), pages 239-263, 02.
  13. Hansen, Henrik & Tarp, Finn, 2001. "Aid and growth regressions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 547-570, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Iimi, Atsushi & Ojima, Yasuhisa, 2008. "Complementarities between grants and loans," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 109-141, March.
  2. Daniel Cohen & Pierre Jacquet & Helmut Reisen, 2010. "Loans or Grants?," Working Papers id:3218, eSocialSciences.
  3. Larru, Jose Maria, 2006. "La ayuda al desarrollo: ¿reduce la pobreza?
    [Foreign Aid: reduce poverty? (in Spanish)]
    ," MPRA Paper 2341, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Oliver Morrissey, & Olaf Islei, & Daniel M'Amanja, . "Aid Loans versus Aid Grants: Are the Effects Different?," Discussion Papers 06/07, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
  5. Axel Dreher & Peter Nunnenkamp & Rainer Thiele, 2006. "Does Aid for Education Educate Children? Evidence from Panel Data," Kiel Working Papers 1290, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  6. Rainer Thiele & Peter Nunnenkamp & Axel Dreher, 2006. "Sectoral Aid Priorities: Are Donors Really Doing their Best to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals?," KOF Working papers 06-124, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
  7. Nkunde Mwase, 2011. "Determinants of Development Financing Flows From Brazil, Russia, India, and China to Low-Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 11/255, International Monetary Fund.
  8. Yasuyuki Sawada & Ayako Matsuda & Hidemi Kimura, 2012. "On The Role Of Technical Cooperation In International Technology Transfers," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(3), pages 316-340, 04.
  9. Raihan, Selim & Razzaque, Mohammad A, 2007. "WTO and regional trade negotiation outcomes: quantitative assessments of potential implications on Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 38475, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Kimura, Hidemi & Mori, Yuko & Sawada, Yasuyuki, 2012. "Aid Proliferation and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 1-10.

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