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Measuring the Impact of Distortions in Agricultural Trade in Partial and General Equilibrium

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  • Stephen Tokarick
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    Abstract

    This paper provides quantitative estimates of the impact of removing agricultural support (both tariffs and subsidies) in partial- and general-equilibrium frameworks. The results show that agricultural support in industrial countries is highly distortionary and tariffs have a larger distortionary impact than subsidies. Removal of agricultural support would likely raise the international prices of food, resulting in an increase in the cost of food for many net-food- importing countries, although the increase is generally small. The results also show that most of the benefits from removing agricultural support accrue to the countries that liberalize.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 03/110.

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    Length: 45
    Date of creation: 01 May 2003
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:03/110

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    Related research

    Keywords: Subsidies; Agricultural subsidies; Trade restrictions; Economic models; input subsidies; production subsidies; price support; world price; subsidy; agricultural trade; trade liberalization; terms of trade; agricultural trade liberalization; partial equilibrium; world prices; equilibrium model; export subsidies; import costs; input subsidy; importing countries; trade effect; import subsidy; production subsidy; import demand; agricultural liberalization; net welfare effect; export supply; import tariff; import tariffs; importing country; export earnings; multilateral liberalization; economic cooperation; tariff removal; global liberalization; distortionary effect; domestic price; net exporters; net exports; world trade; exporting countries; domestic demand; world markets; tariff revenue; trade losses; trade negotiations; domestic consumption; domestic production; global trade analysis; agricultural commodities; high tariffs; agricultural imports; world trade organization; international trade; factor markets; political economy; tariff barriers; global trade; price ? support; multilateral trade; tariff rate; transport costs; export prices; export sectors; multilateral trade negotiations; trade rounds; round agreement; process of liberalization; global welfare; trade flows; trade effects; balance of payments; price of imports; trade shock; barriers to imports; net exporter; liberalization commitments; world demand; removing tariffs; per capita income; market orientation; trade pattern; domestic prices; market access issues; trade policies; agricultural exporters; developing country exports; terms of trade loss;

    References

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    1. Anderson, James E., 1998. "The Uruguay Round and welfare in some distorted agricultural economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 393-410, August.
    2. Hoekman, Bernanrd & Ng, Francis & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2003. "Reducing agrcultural tariffs versus domestic support : what's more important for developing countries?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2918, The World Bank.
    3. Harrison, Glenn W & Rutherford, Thomas F & Tarr, David G, 1997. "Quantifying the Uruguay Round," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(444), pages 1405-30, September.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Herrmann, Michael, 2006. "Agricultural Support Measures of Advanced Countries and Food Insecurity in Developing Countries," Working Paper Series RP2006/141, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Fadiga, Mohamadou L. & Mohanty, Samarendu & Pan, Suwen, 2005. "The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 6(2), August.
    3. Shepherd, Ben, 2006. "Estimating Price Elasticities of Supply for Cotton: A Structural Time-Series Approach," MPRA Paper 1252, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Luis San Vicente Portes, 2005. "On the Distributional Effects of Trade Policy: A Macroeconomic Perspective," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005 358, Society for Computational Economics.
    5. Gillson, I & Poulton, Colin & Balcombe, Kelvin & Page, S, 2004. "Understanding the impact of Cotton Subsidies on developing countries," MPRA Paper 15373, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Niemi, Jyrki S. & Fahlbeck, Erik & Hofreither, Markus F., 2005. "Ten Years After - Welfare Effects of the Application of the CAP in Austria, Finland and Sweden," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24767, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Claudio Paiva, 2005. "Assessing Protectionism and Subsidies in Agriculture," IMF Working Papers 05/21, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Baffes, John, 2004. "Cotton : Market setting, trade policies, and issues," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3218, The World Bank.
    9. Aaditya Mattoo & Arvind Subramanian, 2004. "The WTO and the Poorest Countries," IMF Working Papers 04/81, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Brockmeier, Martina & Bektasoglu, Beyhan, 2014. "Model structure or data aggregation level: Which leads to greater bias of results?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 238-245.
    11. Ilhem Baghdadli & Hela Cheikhrouhou & Gael Raballand, 2007. "Strategies for Cotton in West and Central Africa : Enhancing Competitiveness in the "Cotton 4"," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6784, October.
    12. Claudio Paiva, 2008. "Assessing protectionism and subsidies in agriculture-a gravity approach," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(5), pages 628-640.
    13. Bureau, Jean-Christophe & Jean, Sebastien & Matthews, Alan, 2005. "Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing the Consequences for Developing Countries," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24628, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Valdes, Alberto & Foster, William E., 2006. "Latin America's "New Open Regionalism" and WTO Negotiations: the case of agriculture," Economia Agraria y Recursos Naturales, Spanish Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 6(12).
    15. Stephen Tokarick, 2004. "What Do We Know About Tariff Incidence?," IMF Working Papers 04/182, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Cororaton, Caesar B. & Orden, David, 2008. "Pakistan's cotton and textile economy: Intersectoral linkages and effects on rural and urban poverty," Research reports 158, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    17. Gadanakis, Yiorgos & Baourakis, George & Clapan, Carmen, 2007. "Measuring the impacts of distortions in the European Union cotton sector: a partial equilibrium analysis using the ATPSM model framework," Working Papers 7285, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
    18. MacDonald, Stephen & Meyer, Leslie A. & Somwaru, Agapi, 2003. "Perspectives On Cotton Global Trade Reforms," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 21902, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).

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