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User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries

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  • E. Jenkner
  • Arye L. Hillman

Abstract

Insufficient resources and inadequate public expenditure management often prevent governments in low-income countries from providing quality basic education free of charge. User payments by parents are an alternative means of financing basic education. This paper assesses how user payments affect educational opportunities and quality of education for children of poor families in low-income countries. Conditions are identified under which user payments can or cannot improve educational outcomes. User payments, whether taking the form of compulsory benefit taxation or voluntary user fees, are a temporary solution and second-best compared with free-access, publicly financed quality education that is consistent with macroeconomic stability.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 02/182.

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Length: 33
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:02/182

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  1. Alain Mingat & Jee-Peng Tan, 1985. "On Equity in Education Again: An International Comparison," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(2), pages 298-308.
  2. Pritchett, Lant & Filmer,Deon, 1997. "What educational production functions really show : a positive theory of education spending," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1795, The World Bank.
  3. Jimenez, Emmanuel & Sawada, Yasuyuki, 1999. "Do Community-Managed Schools Work? An Evaluation of El Salvador's EDUCO Program," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 13(3), pages 415-41, September.
  4. Reinikka, Ritva & Svensson, Jakob, 2001. "Explaining Leakage of Public Funds," Working Paper Series, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  5. Filmer, Deon, 2000. "The structure of social disparities in education : gender and wealth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2268, The World Bank.
  6. Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
  7. Gupta, Sanjeev & de Mello, Luiz & Sharan, Raju, 2001. "Corruption and military spending," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 749-777, November.
  8. T. Paul Schultz, 2001. "School Subsidies for the Poor: Evaluating the Mexican Progresa Poverty Program," Working Papers, Economic Growth Center, Yale University 834, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  9. Fisman, Raymond & Gatti, Roberta, 2002. "Decentralization and corruption: evidence across countries," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 325-345, March.
  10. Gupta, Sanjeev & Verhoeven, Marijn, 2001. "The efficiency of government expenditure: experiences from Africa," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 433-467, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Baldacci, Emanuele & Hillman, Arye L. & Kojo, Naoko C., 2004. "Growth, governance, and fiscal policy transmission channels in low-income countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 517-549, September.
  2. Aline Coudouel & Stefano Paternostro, 2005. "Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms : A Practioner's Guide to Trade, Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy, Utility Provision, Agricultural Markets, Land Policy and Education, Volume 1," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7251, August.
  3. Potrafke, Niklas, 2012. "Islam and democracy," Munich Reprints in Economics, University of Munich, Department of Economics 19273, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  4. Gabriela Inchauste & Ana Corbacho & Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, 2003. "Argentina," IMF Working Papers 03/89, International Monetary Fund.
  5. Ricardo Da Costa Nunes & Selene Peres Peres Nunes, 2004. "O papel dos Fundos de Participação dos Estados - FPE na convergência da renda per capita dos estados brasileiros," Revista de Economía y Estadística, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Instituto de Economía y Finanzas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Instituto de Economía y Finanzas, vol. 0(2), pages 89-103, July.

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