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User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries

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Author Info

  • E. Jenkner
  • Arye L. Hillman

Abstract

Insufficient resources and inadequate public expenditure management often prevent governments in low-income countries from providing quality basic education free of charge. User payments by parents are an alternative means of financing basic education. This paper assesses how user payments affect educational opportunities and quality of education for children of poor families in low-income countries. Conditions are identified under which user payments can or cannot improve educational outcomes. User payments, whether taking the form of compulsory benefit taxation or voluntary user fees, are a temporary solution and second-best compared with free-access, publicly financed quality education that is consistent with macroeconomic stability.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 02/182.

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Length: 33
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:02/182

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  1. International Monetary Fund, 2000. "Corruption and Military Spending," IMF Working Papers 00/23, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
  3. Reinikka, Ritva & Svensson, Jakob, 2001. "Explaining leakage of public funds," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2709, The World Bank.
  4. Fisman, Raymond & Gatti, Roberta, 2002. "Decentralization and corruption: evidence across countries," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 325-345, March.
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  6. Filmer, Deon, 2000. "The structure of social disparities in education : gender and wealth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2268, The World Bank.
  7. Erwin Tiongson & Hamid Reza Davoodi & Sanjeev Gupta, 2000. "Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services," IMF Working Papers 00/116, International Monetary Fund.
  8. T. Paul Schultz, 2001. "School Subsidies for the Poor: Evaluating the Mexican Progresa Poverty Program," Working Papers 834, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  9. Alain Mingat & Jee-Peng Tan, 1985. "On Equity in Education Again: An International Comparison," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(2), pages 298-308.
  10. Pritchett, Lant & Filmer,Deon, 1997. "What educational production functions really show : a positive theory of education spending," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1795, The World Bank.
  11. Gupta, Sanjeev & Verhoeven, Marijn, 2001. "The efficiency of government expenditure: experiences from Africa," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 433-467, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Ricardo Da Costa Nunes & Selene Peres Peres Nunes, 2004. "O papel dos Fundos de Participação dos Estados - FPE na convergência da renda per capita dos estados brasileiros," Revista de Economía y Estadística, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Instituto de Economía y Finanzas, vol. 0(2), pages 89-103, July.
  2. Gabriela Inchauste & Ana Corbacho & Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, 2003. "Argentina," IMF Working Papers 03/89, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Aline Coudouel & Stefano Paternostro, 2005. "Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms : A Practioner's Guide to Trade, Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy, Utility Provision, Agricultural Markets, Land Policy and Education, Volume 1," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7251, October.
  4. Niklas Potrafke, 2010. "Islam and Democracy," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2010-10, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  5. Baldacci, Emanuele & Hillman, Arye L. & Kojo, Naoko C., 2004. "Growth, governance, and fiscal policy transmission channels in low-income countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 517-549, September.

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