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Dynamic Gains From Trade


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  • Arvind Subramanian
  • Gunnar Jonsson


This paper examines the empirical relationship between trade and total factor productivity (TFP) in South Africa. It uses (i) a time series approach where trade is defined in terms of aggregate outcomes, i.e., as the share of imports plus exports in GDP, and (ii) a cross sectional approach, where trade is defined in terms of trade policy, i.e., as actual trade protection across different manufacturing sectors. The results indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between trade and TFP growth both over time and across sectors.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 00/45.

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Length: 32
Date of creation: 01 Mar 2000
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:00/45

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Keywords: Trade; Productivity; trade liberalization; impact of trade; total factor productivity; tariff lines; quantitative restrictions; tariff reductions; tariff changes; terms of trade; trade regime; impact of trade liberalization; factor accumulation; economic growth; factor shares; growth rates; real gdp; trade volumes; export subsidies; import controls; employment growth; business cycle; output growth; national income; national income accounts; tariff rates; import tariffs; multilateral trade liberalization; growth rate; tariff protection; tariff data; value of imports; current account balance; unilateral trade; tariff revenues; trade protection; unilateral trade liberalization; tariff change; multilateral trade; increased trade; increased openness; fixed capital formation; export incentives; transport costs; anti-export bias; import penetration; capital formation; import tariff; import taxes; domestic price; business cycle indicator; export orientation; nontariff barriers; idiosyncratic shocks; growth model; value of exports; dynamic gains; protection data; world prices; unilateral tariff liberalization; policy barriers; high tariffs; liberal trade policy; tariff liberalization; aggregate demand; import value; export taxes; gross fixed capital formation; trade negotiations; neoclassical growth model; export markets; export bias; trade restrictions; imperfect competition; efficient firms; intermediate goods; trade policy variables; weighted tariff; trade tax revenue; average tariff; net exporter; trade reform; export shares; domestic consumption; import duties; transport equipment; international standard; volume of trade; domestic production; trade policy barriers; agricultural commodities; balance of payments; liberal trade; endogenous growth; import substitution; aggregate shocks; trade policies; agricultural imports; tariff reduction;


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Cited by:
  1. Soamiely Andriamananjara & Russell Hillberry, 2001. "Regionalism, Trade And Growth: The Case Of The Eu-South Africa Free Trade Arrangement," International Trade, EconWPA 0108001, EconWPA.
  2. J. Paul Dunne & Lawrence Edwards, 2006. "Trade Technology and Employment: A case Study of South Africa," Working Papers 0602, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
  3. Arbache, Jorge Saba, 2004. "Do Structural Reforms always Succeed? Lessons from Brazil," Working Paper Series, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  4. Lawrence Edwards, 2004. "A firm level analysis of trade, technology and employment in South Africa," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 45-61.
  5. Vivek B. Arora & Ashok Bhundia, 2003. "Potential Output and total Factor Productivity Growth in Post-Apartheid South Africa," IMF Working Papers 03/178, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Edwards, Lawrence & Rankin, Neil A. & Schöer, Volker, 2008. "South African exporting firms: What do we know and what should we know?," MPRA Paper 16906, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Yongzheng Yang & Sanjeev Gupta, 2005. "Regional Trade Arrangements in Africa," IMF Working Papers 05/36, International Monetary Fund.


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