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Determinants of Barter in Russia


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  • Christian Mumssen
  • Irina Dolinskaya
  • Simon Commander
  • Irina Tytell
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    This paper analyzes the causes and consequences of non-monetary transactions in Russia, drawing on a large enterprise survey. We show that barter and offsets are linked to liquidity problems at the level of the firm and to arrears in particular. We find evidence that the state has channeled implicit subsidies to enterprises in the form of tax and utility offsets. The findings help explain the rise of non-monetary transactions during much of the 1990s. We show that non-monetary transactions inhibit enterprise restructuring. Our findings suggest that a policy solution to the non-cash problem would require the state and public utilities to phase out arrears and offsets.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 00/155.

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    Length: 33
    Date of creation: 01 Aug 2000
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:00/155

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    Keywords: Trade; Liquidity; Subsidies; Transition economies; monetary transactions; tax offsets; tax authorities; federal tax; tax arrears; federal taxes; monetary fund; monetary transaction; monetary instruments; tax evasion; tax payments; tax minimization; aggregate demand; monetary exchange; tax collection; monetary expenditures; tax bill; money market; tax purposes; tax expenditures; tax receipts;

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    Cited by:
    1. Kim, Byung-Yeon & Pirttilä, Jukka & Rautava, Jouko, 2001. "Money, Barter and Inflation in Russia," BOFIT Discussion Papers, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition 15/2001, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    2. Richard B. Goud Jr., 2002. "Inter-Firm Non-Monetary Transactions in Russia: A Literature Review," Development and Comp Systems 0207001, EconWPA.
    3. Mark J Flanagan, 2008. "Resolving a Large Contingent Fiscal Liability," IMF Working Papers 08/159, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Jose Noguera & Susan Linz, 2003. "A Theoretical Model of Barter in Russia," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp207, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.


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