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China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy


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  • Eswar Prasad


China’s transformation into a dynamic private-sector-led economy and its integration into the world economy have been among the most dramatic global economic developments of recent decades. This paper provides an overview of some of the key aspects of recent developments in China’s macroeconomy and economic structure. It also surveys the main policy challenges that will need to be addressed for China to maintain sustained high growth and continued global integration.

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Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Occasional Papers with number 232.

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Length: 75
Date of creation: 17 Jun 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfocp:232

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Postal: International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC USA
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Keywords: Development; Economic growth; Trade; exchange rate; inflation; real exchange rate; employment; unemployment; local governments; labor force; jobs; labor market; banking; effective exchange rate; export growth; exchange rate fluctuations; banking system; world trade; current account balance; financial institutions; international trade; employment growth; real effective exchange rate; unemployed; job growth; exchange rates; unemployment rate; output growth; world economy; intergovernmental fiscal relations; commodity prices; urban unemployment; export subsidies; real exchange rate fluctuations; pension; equilibrium exchange rate; deposit money; tariff reductions; deposit money banks; labor productivity; world trade organization; tradable goods; trading system; local government; local governments? expenditure; partner countries; per capita income; exchange rate regime; trading partners; export shares; export market; export markets; clothing exports; fiscal position; intergovernmental fiscal; foreign exchange; international standards; exchange rate system; exchange rate regimes; average tariff; reemployment; aggregate employment; exchange rate changes; bilateral trade; nominal effective exchange rate; trade patterns; fiscal relations; pensions; fiscal risks; exchange rate dynamics; new jobs; banking sector; trade reforms; fixed exchange rate; tariff rate; average tariff rate; global trading; job creation; job losses; tax administration; trade regime; nontradable goods; exchange rate movements; intellectual property; value-added tax; intellectual property rights; urban labor force; registered unemployment; merchandise exports; total exports; fiscal decentralization; financial intermediation; inflation rate; labor force participation; fiscal incentives; local taxes; rural employment; labor law; capital expenditure; trade expansion; individual accounts; primary expenditure; hidden unemployment; contingent liabilities; pension liabilities; money growth; provincial governments; open economy; nominal exchange rate; labor force survey; reemployment centers; trade in services; skilled workers; vertical specialization; regional trade; banker; tariff rates; foreign investment; export diversification; bonds; trade surplus; export performance; domestic consumption; retirement; trading partner; increasing trade; exchange rate developments; economic cooperation; trade liberalization; export prices; revenue collection; fiscal federalism; import penetration; local expenditures; tax revenue; fiscal developments; inflationary pressures; unemployment benefits; budget deficits; trade-related investment; unemployment rates; job search; reexport; export controls; developing country exports; taxation; expenditure programs; budget deficit; world exports; agricultural subsidies; world export market; export market share; trade-related investment measures; monetary policy; public debt; pension obligations; state budget; intergovernmental fiscal reforms; regional disparities; fiscal sustainability; export base; agricultural export subsidies; low inflation; cash balances; fiscal liabilities; trade pattern; fixed exchange rate system; aggregate demand; real exchange rate changes; domestic demand; world trading system; partial equilibrium; global trade analysis; dual exchange rate; unemployment insurance; labor market reforms; urban employment; job seekers; current accounts; domestic market; domestic goods; trade classification; flexible exchange rate; real exchange rates; expanding trade; average tariff rates; foreign trade; price liberalization; real exchange rate movements; stock markets; capital adequacy; investment liberalization; fixed exchange rate regime; global trade; producer price index; trade policies; monetary union; transition economies; market exchange rates; rural population; financial sector; agricultural development bank; macroeconomic stability; underemployment; urban job; labor force growth; labor force participation rate; total employment; bond; deposit insurance; fiscal adjustment; fiscal reforms; tax system; foreign debt; fiscal positions; domestic savings; fiscal balance; public spending; asset management; government pensions; individual pension; fiscal management; social expenditure; public expenditure; fiscal data; retirement benefit; fiscal management system; retirement system; aging population; contingent liability; individual pension accounts; fiscal policy; pension system; fiscal consolidation; tax collections; pension accounts; replacement rate; local unemployment; labor bureaus; private employment agencies; labor organization; flexible labor market; employment data; unemployed persons; number of employees; local labor; labor supply; corporate bond issuance; financial strength; deposit interest rates; bank loans; deposit interest; employment agencies; unemployment projection; banking sector developments; bank restructuring; labor market performance; job opportunities; labor market issues; reemployment program; job search assistance; private employment; unemployment pressures; labor market flexibility; industrial employment; productive employment; retraining; farm employment; total labor force; new job; overall employment; unemployment fund; aged workers; unemployment insurance fund; corporate bond; fiscal system; fiscal revenues; tax collection; interest rate liberalization; regulatory forbearance; regional policy; tax authority; fiscal costs; local government taxes; fiscal reform; local government financing; fiscal pressure; tax revenues; local government agencies; local tax; international reserves; bond issuance; financial intermediaries; agricultural bank; deposit rates; bond markets; loan classification; stock market capitalization; financial system; banking environment; financial resources; deposit guarantee; international financial statistics; return on assets; banks? balance sheet; bank supervision; import bank; bank soundness; stock market; regulatory framework; terms of trade; real exchange rate depreciation; trade relations; real exchange rate misalignment; tradable goods sectors; flexible exchange rate systems; domestic prices; nominal exchange rates; round agreement; national treatment; import tariffs; multilateral context; investment goods; increasing integration; internal market; exchange rate appreciation; dispute settlement procedures; global integration; pattern of trade; exchange rate shock; measure of trade; trade growth; external shocks; external trade; exchange rate flexibility; domestic price; trade deficits; preferential access; trade openness; world growth; floating exchange rate system; domestic production; import quotas; bilateral exchange rates; international trading; nontariff barriers; domestic banks; exchange rate variations; exchange rate levels; world market; intermediate goods; exchange rate depreciation; trade deficit; imported goods; most-favored-nation; partner country; value of imports; lowering trade; preliminary assessment; foreign exchange transactions; floating exchange rate; tariff cuts; exchange transactions; trade arrangements; balance of payments; intermediate products; dispute settlement; trade barriers; multinational companies; domestic firms; market orientation; trade volumes; real exchange rate appreciation; balance of payments crises; displaced workers; import tariff; political economy; real exchange rate dynamics; dynamic effects; trade flow; exchange rate systems; countries? exports; diversification of exports; annual inflation; annual inflation rate; monetary policies; exchange rate misalignment; increase in inflation; changes in prices; unfunded pension; public pension; fiscal stimulus; retirement age; fiscal structure; current pension; export growth rates; export market shares; global export; agricultural export; export growth rate; global export base; world export market share;


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  1. Robin Brooks & Kenneth Rogoff & Ashoka Mody & Nienke Oomes & Aasim M. Husain, 2004. "Evolution and Performance of Exchange Rate Regimes," IMF Occasional Papers 229, International Monetary Fund.
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