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Inequality in crisis and recovery : revealing the divides: the case of Brazil


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  • Forbes, Kinisha
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    Discusses the effects of two recent economic crises, 1998-1999 and 2008-2009, on gender and racial inequalities in Brazil. Argues that the effects of these crises on qualitative aspects of employment such as wages and employment status have been unequally felt by women and blacks in Brazilian society. Shows that during and following the 2008-2009 global economic crisis, quantitative aspects of employment, namely employment and unemployment rates, improved for women and blacks. Demonstrates also that the negative differentiated impacts on qualitative aspects of employment that were visible in the 1998-1999 crisis on women and blacks were not as severe. Links this difference in the impacts of the two crises to social policy interventions such as pension, social transfer and minimum wage revaluation programmes largely implemented in the intercrisis period. Using data on the recent global economic crisis, argues that due to multiple discriminations, black women in particular continue to hold a disadvantaged position in the Brazilian labour market and broader society, and are thus particularly vulnerable to economic shocks. Provides further evidence that decreased levels of inequality in the labour market help to protect vulnerable groups from the disparate impacts of crises, and strengthen larger efforts to combat poverty.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by International Labour Organization in its series ILO Working Papers with number 469849.

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    Length: 38 pages
    Date of creation: 2011
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published in Working paper series, Policy Integration Dept.
    Handle: RePEc:ilo:ilowps:469849

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    Keywords: sex discrimination; racial discrimination; women workers; men workers; Black; income distribution; wage differential; employment; unemployment; poverty alleviation; social policy; economic recession; economic recovery; trend; Brazil; discrimination fondée sur le sexe; discrimination raciale; travailleuses; travailleurs masculins; Noir; répartition du revenu; disparité des salaires; emploi; chômage; lutte contre la pauvreté; politique sociale; récession économique; reprise économique; tendance; Brésil; discriminación por razones de sexo; discriminación racial; trabajadoras; trabajadores masculinos; negro; distribución del ingreso; diferencia del salario; empleo; desempleo; lucha contra la pobreza; política social; recesión económica; recuperación económica; tendencia; Brasil;


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    1. Miguel Nathan Foguel & Ricardo Paes de Barros, 2008. "The Effects of Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes on Adult Labour Supply: An Empirical Analysis Using a Time-Series-Cross-Section," Anais do XXXVI Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 36th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 200807211655420, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    2. Kakwani, Nanak & Neri, Marcelo & Son, Hyun H., 2009. "Linkages between Pro-Poor Growth, Social Programmes and Labour Market: The Recent Brazilian Experience," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    3. Rose Brewer & Cecilia Conrad & Mary King, 2002. "The Complexities and Potential of Theorizing Gender, Caste, Race, and Class," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 3-17.
    4. Priscilla de Albuquerque Tavares, 2008. "O Efeito do Programa Bolsa Família sobre a Oferta de Trabalho das Mães," Anais do XXXVI Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 36th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 200807211028050, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    5. Eduardo Zepeda & Diana Alarcón & Fabio Veras Soares & Rafael Guerreiro Osório, 2007. "Growth, Poverty and Employment in Brazil, Chile and Mexico," Working Papers 42, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    6. Menezes-Filho, Naercio & Scorzafave, Luiz, 2009. "Employment and Inequality of Outcomes in Brazil," Insper Working Papers wpe_200, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.
    7. Marcelo Medeiros & Tatiana Britto & Fabio Veras Soares, 2008. "Targeted Cash Transfer Programmes in Brazil: BPC and the Bolsa Familia," Working Papers 46, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    8. Eliana Cardoso & Andre Portela Souza, 2004. "The Impact of Cash Transfers on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0407, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
    9. Rania Antonopoulos, 2009. "The Current Economic and Financial Crisis: A Gender Perspective," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_562, Levy Economics Institute.
    10. Sabarwal, Shwetlena & Sinha, Nistha & Buvinic, Mayra, 2010. "How do women weather economic shocks ? a review of the evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5496, The World Bank.
    11. Kanchana Ruwanpura, 2008. "Multiple identities, multiple-discrimination: A critical review," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 77-105.
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