Offshoring in Europe—Evidence of a Two-Way Street from Denmark
AbstractBased on a large Danish survey of companies in tradable goods and services sectors, this working paper presents the results of offshoring and its impact on jobs, adding new perspectives to the globalization debate. Globalization entails a cross-border flow of jobs, but contrary to the mainstream media portrayal of globalization, it is not a one-way but a two-way street. In 2002–05 more jobs were created as a result of offshoring of activities into eastern Denmark from companies outside Denmark (i.e., inshored to Denmark) than were eliminated due to offshoring from companies in the Danish region. Overall, the employment effects of both offshoring and inshoring were found to be limited to less than 1 percent of all jobs either lost to offshoring or gained via inshoring. For Denmark, the worries in purely numerical terms regarding the employment effects of globalization seem overly alarmist. However, the trends revealed in the study do pose challenges for low-skilled workers—the group most negatively affected—and for highly skilled specialists, who face pressure to constantly upgrade their skills. Policy implications can be drawn in view of our results to ensure that labor markets are able to meet the demands of globalizing firms.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Peterson Institute for International Economics in its series Working Paper Series with number WP06-3.
Date of creation: Jun 2006
Date of revision:
Labor Market; Offshoring; Offshore Outsourcing; High- and Low-Skilled Workers; Skill Bias; Denmark; Flexicurity;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- J38 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Public Policy
- L23 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Organization of Production
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- James Markusen, 2005.
"Modeling the Offshoring of White-Collar Services: From Comparative Advantage to the New Theories of Trade and FDI,"
NBER Working Papers
11827, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Markusen, James R., 2005. "Modeling the Offshoring of White-Collar Services: From Comparative Advantage to the New Theories of Trade and FDI," CEPR Discussion Papers 5408, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jagdish Bhagwati & Arvind Panagariya, 2004.
"The Muddles over Outsourcing,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 93-114, Fall.
- Paul A. Samuelson, 2004. "Where Ricardo and Mill Rebut and Confirm Arguments of Mainstream Economists Supporting Globalization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 135-146, Summer.
- Peter Maskell & Torben Pedersen & Bent Petersen & Jens Dick-Nielsen, 2007.
"Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing: From Cost Reduction to Knowledge Seeking,"
Industry and Innovation,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 239-257.
- Peter Maskell & Torben Pedersen & Bent Petersen & Jens Dick-Nielsen, 2005. "Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing - From Cost Reduction to Knowledge Seeking," DRUID Working Papers 05-17, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- Kakabadse, Andrew & Kakabadse, Nada, 2002. "Trends in Outsourcing:: Contrasting USA and Europe," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 189-198, April.
- Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, 2005. "Outsourcing and Offshoring: Pushing the European Model Over the Hill, Rather Than Off the Cliff!," Working Paper Series WP05-1, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Catherine L. Mann, 2003. "Globalization of IT Services and White Collar Jobs: The Next Wave of Productivity Growth," Policy Briefs PB03-11, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Diana Farrell, 2005. "Offshoring: Value Creation through Economic Change," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 675-683, 05.
- Elisa Borghi & Rosario Crinò, 2013. "Service offshoring and wages: worker-level evidence from Italy," LIUC Papers in Economics 264, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
- Desiree van Welsum & Xavier Reif, 2006. "We Can Work It Out - The Globalisation of ICT-enabled Services," NBER Working Papers 12799, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg, 2009. "A learning perspective on the offshoring of advanced services," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 181-193, June.
- Desireé van Welsum & Xavier Reif, 2009.
"We Can Work It Out: The Globalization of ICT-Enabled Services,"
in: International Trade in Services and Intangibles in the Era of Globalization, pages 289-325
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Desiree Welsum & Xavier Reif, 2007. "We Can Work It Out - The Globalisation of ICT-enabled Services," Working Papers id:802, eSocialSciences.
- Martin Borowiecki & Bernhard Dachs & Doris Hanzl-Weiss & Steffen Kinkel & Johannes Pöschl & Magdolna Sass & Thomas Christian Schmall & Robert Stehrer & Andrea Szalavetz, 2012. "Global Value Chains and the EU Industry," wiiw Research Reports 383, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peterson Institute webmaster).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.