Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Factors of Vulnerability to Human Trafficking and Prospects for Reintegration of Former Victims. Evidence from the Philippines

Contents:

Author Info

  • Elsa Artadi
  • Martina Bjorkman
  • Eliana La Ferrara
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    Trafficking of persons is a serious and very complex issue, although too often neglected, in many developing countries, including the Philippines. We make a first attempt to produce empirical research from the angle of development economists to assess the risk factors for entering into trafficking and evaluate the prospects of reintegration of trafficked victims. We have interviewed young women resident in shelters in the Cebu area and the sample consists of girls 14 years and above living in 12 shelters in the Cebu area. We find that trafficked victims have on average lower levels of education than the non-trafficked girls. Trafficking victims are also more likely to come from larger families. 20 percent of the girls came from households where the mother was absent during the last year she lived with her family. Therefore, as expected, income appears as a main factor of vulnerability. Any policy oriented to create safety nets for families at risk, empowering women, and create better labor opportunities for girls is likely to reduce to probabilities of entering into trafficking. In terms of family dynamics, trafficking victims come from families with relatively more inter-personal conflicts. There is also more prevalence of physical violence in houses where trafficked victims lived. The violent home environment of these vulnerable girls needs to be kept in mind when designing reintegration programs. Using techniques that elicit the expectations that the girls had when leaving their household and then comparing them with what actually happened, we observe that trafficked girls underestimate the cost of leaving the household (in terms of likelihood to get pregnant, ill, use drugs) and overestimate the benefits (in terms of likelihood to marry a foreign man and being able to send back money to the family). Moreover, we also find that friends are the most prevalent mode of recruitment of trafficking while the role of formal recruiters is less important. In our sample, only 27 percent of the girls obtained their job via a recruiter. Information campaigns to explain the danger of the jobs offered could contribute to stopping the trafficking phenomenon. Finally, important insights emerged by looking at inter-temporal preferences and risk preferences of our respondents, where these preferences were elicited using the tools of experimental economics. Former victims of trafficking exhibited a relatively high degree of impatience compared to other girls. On the other hand, both groups were extremely risk averse. These results suggests that an important role should be given, when designing reintegration programs for vulnerable girls – and especially former victims of trafficking – in working on the formation of their expectation, inter-temporal preferences and risk preferences.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: ftp://ftp.igier.unibocconi.it/wp/2010/374.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University in its series Working Papers with number 374.

    as in new window
    Length:
    Date of creation: 2010
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:igi:igierp:374

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: via Rontgen, 1 - 20136 Milano (Italy)
    Phone: 0039-02-58363301
    Fax: 0039-02-58363302
    Web page: http://www.igier.unibocconi.it/

    Order Information:
    Email:
    Web: http://www.igier.unibocconi.it/en/papers/index.htm

    Related research

    Keywords:

    References

    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.

    Citations

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:igi:igierp:374. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.