Gibrat’s law and legacy for non-profit organisations: a non-parametric analysis
AbstractGibrat’s Law of proportional effect (i.e. growth is independent of initial size) has been tested for firms for several decades. In this paper I test Gibrat’s Law for charities in England and Wales through time. Using a data set based on the population of registered charities from 1998 to 2009, I am able to test the ‘ex ante’ hypothesis that Gibrat’s Law holds over the long run for a sample of charities as well as testing Gibrat’s Legacy (that Gibrat’s Law holds for large and mature organisations), the ‘ex post’ hypothesis. I use nonparametric local polynomial smoothing techniques which are more robust to the issues of autocorrelation, sample selection and truncation that make the conventional parametric approaches to testing Gibrat’s Law difficult in practice. Results suggest that the dynamic processes driving growth in the charitable sectors may differ from those driving the growth of firms. Unlike for-profit firms Gibrat’s Law is found to generally hold when controlling for selection both ‘ex ante’ and ‘ex post’. Results may be driven by the absence of a minimum efficient scale which charities must achieve to survive and the different funding profiles of charities.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB) in its series Working Papers with number 2012/8.
Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Gibrat’s Law; charities; nonparametric estimation;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- L31 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs
- C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-05-02 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rafael González-Val, 2012.
"A nonparametric estimation of the local Zipf exponent for all US cities,"
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design,
Pion Ltd, London, vol. 39(6), pages 1119-1130, November.
- González-Val, Rafael, 2010. "A Nonparametric Estimation of the Local Zipf Exponent for all US Cities," MPRA Paper 26720, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Stephen P. Jenkins & Philippe VanKerm, 2003.
"Trends in Income Inequality, Pro-Poor Income Growth and Income Mobility,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
377, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Stephen P. Jenkins & Philippe Van Kerm, 2006. "Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth, and income mobility," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 531-548, July.
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2003. "Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth and income mobility," IRISS Working Paper Series 2003-11, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2003. "Trends in Income Inequality, Pro-Poor Income Growth and Income Mobility," IZA Discussion Papers 904, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Dunne, T. & Roberts, M.J. & Samuelson, L., 1988.
"The Growth And Failure Of U.S. Manufacturing Plants,"
1-87-5, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
- Dunne, Timothy & Roberts, Mark J & Samuelson, Larry, 1989. "The Growth and Failure of U.S. Manufacturing Plants," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(4), pages 671-98, November.
- Francesca Lotti & Enrico Santarelli & Marco Vivarelli, 2009.
"Defending Gibrat’s Law as a long-run regularity,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 31-44, January.
- D.B. Audretsch & L. Klomp & E. Santarelli & A.R. Thurik, 2004.
"Gibrat's Law: Are the Services Different?,"
Review of Industrial Organization,
Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 301-324, 05.
- Roy Thurik & Enrico Santarelli & David Audretsch & Luuk Klomp, 2002. "Gibrat's Law: Are the Services Different?," Scales Research Reports H200201, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Audretsch, D.B. & Klomp, L. & Thurik, A.R., 2002. "Gibrat's Law: are the services different?," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2002-04-STR, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Richard Steinberg, 1986. "The Revealed Objective Functions of Nonprofit Firms," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(4), pages 508-526, Winter.
- Harrison Teresa D. & Laincz Christopher A, 2008. "Entry and Exit in the Nonprofit Sector," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-42, July.
- Chesher, Andrew, 1979. "Testing the Law of Proportionate Effect," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 403-11, June.
- Puhani, Patrick A, 2000. " The Heckman Correction for Sample Selection and Its Critique," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 53-68, February.
- repec:ese:iserwp:2003-27 is not listed on IDEAS
- José Fariñas & Lourdes Moreno, 2000. "Firms' Growth, Size and Age: A Nonparametric Approach," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 249-265, November.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.