Hell to touch the sky? Private tutoring and academic achievement in Korea
AbstractAlthough not exclusive to the Republic of Korea’s educational system, the pervasiveness of private tutoring, and its consequences, serve to distinguish it from systems operated in other countries. However, the identification of inefficiencies linked to this phenomenon have seen the educational authorities struggling against private tutoring since the 1980s. Yet, public policies have systematically failed because of the widely held belief that private tutoring services increase students’ academic performance. This paper quantifies the impact of time spent in private tutoring on the performance of students in the three competence fields assessed in the PISA-2006 (Programme for International Student Assessment). Instrumental variables are applied in a multilevel model framework in an attempt at addressing the endogeneity of the effects of private tutoring on academic performance. Our results indicate that the impact of time dedicated to private tutoring on academic performance depends on the particular competence: positive for mathematics, positive but decreasing for reading, and non-significant for science.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB) in its series Working Papers with number 2011/10.
Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
private tutoring; demand for schooling; academic performance; PISA;
Other versions of this item:
- Álvaro Choi de Mendizábal & Jorge Calero Martínez & Oriol Escardíbul Ferrà, 2011. "Hell to touch the sky? Private tutoring and academic achievement in Korea," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 6, in: Antonio Caparrós Ruiz (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 7, pages 118-134 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
- I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-05-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-EDU-2011-05-30 (Education)
- NEP-LAB-2011-05-30 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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CEPR Discussion Papers
5446, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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- Abhijit Banerjee & Shawn Cole & Esther Duflo & Leigh Linden, 2005. "Remedying Education: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments in India," NBER Working Papers 11904, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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