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Politiques pro-biocarburants et climatique américaines : impact sur les choix énergétiques du Brésil et des Etats-Unis et bilan carbone

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  • Chakravorty, Ujjayant
  • Hubert, Marie-Hélène
  • Moreaux, Michel

Abstract

Nous analysons l’impact de deux politiques américaines sur la production et les échanges d’éthanol (biocarburants de première génération) et d’éthanol ligno-cellulosique (biocarburant de seconde génération) aux Etats-Unis et au Brésil ainsi que sur les émissions directes et indirectes de carbone. La première politique est une politique dite «pro-biocarburants» qui impose un usage minimal de biocarburants. La deuxième est la politique climatique de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Notre étude montre que la première politique encourage la production massive d’éthanol ligno-cellulosique, la diminution des émissions directes de carbone étant marginale. La deuxième politique accroît le prix des carburants et en décourage la demande. Elle a un effet significatif sur le taux de déforestation au Brésil et augmente de ce fait les émissions indirectes de carbone. La subvention nécessaire à l’implémentation de la politique «pro-biocarburants» devrait être de l’ordre 1.1 US $ par gallon. Enfin, la taxe sur le carbone dans le secteur des transports aux Etats-Unis devrait être égale à 120 US $ par tonne équivalent carbone.

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Paper provided by Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse in its series IDEI Working Papers with number 568.

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Date of creation: Oct 2009
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Publication status: Published in Revue Économique, vol.�61, n°1, 2010.
Handle: RePEc:ide:wpaper:21028

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  1. Chakravorty, Ujjayant & Magne, Bertrand & Moreaux, Michel, 2009. "Endogenous Resource Substitution under a Climate Stabilization Policy: Can Nuclear Power Provide Clean Energy?," Working Papers 2009-19, University of Alberta, Department of Economics, revised 01 Sep 2010.
  2. CHAKRAVORTY Ujjayant & MAGNE Bertrand & MOREAUX Michel, 2006. "A dynamic model of food and clean energy," LERNA Working Papers 06.10.203, LERNA, University of Toulouse.
  3. Chakravorty, Ujjayant & Roumasset, James & Tse, Kinping, 1997. "Endogenous Substitution among Energy Resources and Global Warming," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(6), pages 1201-34, December.
  4. Searchinger, Timothy & Heimlich, Ralph & Houghton, R. A. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Tokgoz, Simla & Hayes, Dermot J. & Yu, Hun-Hsiang, 2008. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change," Staff General Research Papers 12881, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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