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The Educational Gender Gap in Latin America and the Caribbean

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  • Suzanne Duryea
  • Sebastian Galiani
  • Hugo Ñopo

    ()

  • Claudia Piras

Abstract

This paper analyzes the evolution of gender differences in school attendance and attainment in Latin America and the Caribbean, for both adults who left the educational system and children in school. For individuals 21 years old and above the paper uses a cohort analysis of school attainment. The results indicate that the schooling gap has closed for the cohort born at the end of the 1960s. Since then, the gap has reversed such that within the cohort born in 1980, females have, on average, ¼ of a schooling year more than males. During the four decades of birth cohorts of our analysis (1940-1980) the gender gap in attainment has moved in favor of females at a pace of 0. 27 years of schooling per decade. A decomposition exercise suggests that the changes in the schooling gap are mainly explained by the educational attainment of females at the higher levels, rather than improvements in the early years of education. An analysis of attendance and attainment among girls and boys between 6 and 18, for Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru (the countries that have not closed the gap in adult schooling attainment) reveals noticeable gender differences, favoring boys, only among older children of the lowest income quintiles and indigenous ethnicity.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4510.

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Date of creation: Apr 2007
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4510

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  1. Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
  2. Sarah E. Turner & William G. Bowen, 1999. "Choice of major: The changing (unchanging) gender gap," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(2), pages 289-313, January.
  3. Schultz, T Paul, 1973. "A Preliminary Survey of Economic Analyses of Fertility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(2), pages 71-78, May.
  4. Strauss, J. & Thomas, D., 1995. "Empirical Modeling of Household and Family Decisions," Papers 95-12, RAND - Reprint Series.
  5. Psacharopoulos, George & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1992. "Latin American women's earnings and participation in the labor force," Policy Research Working Paper Series 856, The World Bank.
  6. Suzanne Duryea & Jere R. Behrman & Miguel Székely, 1999. "Schooling Investments and Macroeconomic Conditions: A Micro-Macro Investigation for Latin America and the Caribbean," Research Department Publications 4184, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  7. Behrman, Jere R. & Deolalikar, Anil B., 1988. "Health and nutrition," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 631-711 Elsevier.
  8. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
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Blog mentions

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  1. Entre fomentar el crecimiento poblacional y disminuir la brecha de género
    by Rosario Queirolo in Razones y personas: repensando Uruguay on 2012-08-16 14:45:00
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Cited by:
  1. Hugo Nopo & Natalia Winder, 2008. "Etnicidad y acumulación de capital humano en México Urbano," Research Department Publications 4620, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  2. Hugo Nopo & Natalia Winder, 2008. "Ethnicity and Human Capital Accumulation in Urban Mexico," Research Department Publications 4619, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  3. Juan Pablo Atal & Hugo Nopo & Natalia Winder, 2009. "New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America," Research Department Publications 4640, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  4. Agenor, Pierre-Richard & Canuto, Otaviano & da Silva, Luiz Pereira, 2010. "On gender and growth : the role of intergenerational health externalities and women's occupational constraints," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5492, The World Bank.
  5. Ganguli, Ina & Hausmann, Ricardo & Viarengo, Martina, 2011. "Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does It Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps?," Working Paper Series rwp11-021, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  6. World Bank, 2011. "Work and Family : Latin American and Caribbean Women in Search of a New Balance," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12489, The World Bank.
  7. Paula Herrera & Enrique López-Bazo & Elisabet Motellón, 2013. "“Informality and Overeducation in the Labor Market of a Developing Country”," AQR Working Papers 201303, University of Barcelona, Regional Quantitative Analysis Group, revised Apr 2013.
  8. Sebastián Calónico & Hugo R. Ñopo, 2008. "Gender Segregation in the Workplace and Wage Gaps: Evidence from Urban Mexico 1994-2004," IDB Publications 6742, Inter-American Development Bank.
  9. Hugo Ñopo & Alberto Gonzales, 2008. "Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Guatemala from a Matching Comparisons Perspective," Research Department Publications 4587, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  10. Eduardo Lora & Hugo R. Ñopo, 2009. "La Formación de los Economistas en América Latina," IDB Publications 7558, Inter-American Development Bank.
  11. Hugo Ñopo & Alberto Gonzales, 2008. "Brechas salariales por género y etnicidad en Guatemala desde una perspectiva de comparaciones emparejadas," Research Department Publications 4588, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  12. Sebastian Calonico & Hugo Ñopo, 2008. "Segregación de genero en el trabajo y diferenciales de salario: Evidencia de las zonas urbanas de Mexico 1994-2004," Research Department Publications 4580, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.

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