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Bank Ownership and Performance

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  • Alejandro Micco
  • Ugo Panizza
  • Mónica Yañez

Abstract

This paper builds a new dataset on bank ownership and bank performance covering approximately 50,000 observations for 119 countries over the 1995-2002 period. The paper then uses the dataset to reassess the relationship between bank ownership and bank performance, providing separated estimations for developing and industrial countries. It is found that, while ownership is strongly correlated with performance in developing countries, that ownership is not correlated with performance in industrial countries. In particular, the paper suggests that state-owned banks operating in developing countries tend to have lower profitability and higher costs than their private counterparts, and that the opposite is true for foreign-owned banks (which tend to be characterized by higher profitability and lower costs). We also find that, in developing countries, the entry of foreign banks plays a useful role by making domestic banks more efficient in terms of overhead cost and spreads, although we do not find any effect on profitability of domestic banks.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4381.

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Date of creation: Nov 2004
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4381

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References

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  1. Vennet, Rudi Vander, 1996. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on the efficiency and profitability of EC credit institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1531-1558, November.
  2. Laeven, Luc, 1999. "Risk and efficiency in East Asian banks," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2255, The World Bank.
  3. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung & Hesna Genay & Gregory F. Udell, 2000. "Globalization of financial institutions: evidence from cross-border banking performance," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-04, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-deSilanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2000. "Government Ownership of Banks," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1890, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  5. Jennifer S. Crystal & B. Gerard Dages & Linda S. Goldberg, 2001. "Does foreign ownership contribute to sounder banks in emerging markets? the Latin American experience," Staff Reports 137, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  6. J.A. Bikker & K. Haaf, 2001. "Competition, Concentration and their Relationship: an EmpiricalAnalysis of the Banking Industry," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 68, Netherlands Central Bank.
  7. Allen N. Berger & Seth D. Bonime & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2004. "The Dynamics of Market Entry: The Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions on Entry in the Banking Industry," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(4), pages 797-834, October.
  8. Altunbas, Yener & Evans, Lynne & Molyneux, Philip, 2001. "Bank Ownership and Efficiency," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(4), pages 926-54, November.
  9. Claessens, Stijn & Glaessner, Tom, 1998. "The internationalization of financial services in Asia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1911, The World Bank.
  10. Adolfo Barajas & Natalia Salazar & Roberto Steiner, 1999. "Foreign Investment in Colombia's Financial Sector," IMF Working Papers 99/150, International Monetary Fund.
  11. Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?," NBER Working Papers 8841, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Bonin, John P. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Wachtel, Paul, 2005. "Bank performance, efficiency and ownership in transition countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 31-53, January.
  13. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 1998. "Determinants of commercial bank interest margins and profitability : some international evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1900, The World Bank.
  14. Clarke, George R. G. & Cull, Robert & D'Amato, Laura & Molinari, Andrea, 1999. "The effect of foreign entry on Argentina's domestic banking sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2158, The World Bank.
  15. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Alejandro Micco & Ugo Panizza, 2004. "Should the Government Be in the Banking Business?: The Role of State-Owned and Development Banks," IDB Publications 6684, Inter-American Development Bank.
  16. Claessens, Stijn & Demirguc-Kunt, Asl[iota] & Huizinga, Harry, 2001. "How does foreign entry affect domestic banking markets?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 891-911, May.
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