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Los años 90 en América Latina: otra década de pertinaz desigualdad

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  • Miguel Székely
  • Marianne Hilgert
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    Abstract

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se propone que no hay país en América Latina del que se pueda afirmar que la desigualdad del ingreso se haya reducido durante la década del 90. Este hecho se documenta en los 15 países en los cuales se dispone de encuestas de hogares similares que cubren a la mayor parte de la población. Se aprecian verdaderos cambios de la distribución que ni son producto de diferencias en las características de los datos ni de la manera en que se manejan los mismos. En 10 de esos países la falta de avance es ocasionada por aumentos de la desigualdad entre los primeros nueve deciles. En los cinco países restantes, el motivo es una mayor concentración en el 10% más adinerado de la población. También se observa que, en siete de los países, la dinámica entre los individuos con 14 años o más de escolaridad es el motivo principal de que no haya mejorado la distribución del ingreso durante los años 90. No obstante, la falta de mejoramiento en la distribución del ingreso no es exclusiva de la región. Se compara a América Latina internacionalmente y se descubre que, con escasas excepciones, la desigualdad ha aumentado menos en esta región que en países desarrollados y en Europa Oriental.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4191.

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    Date of creation: Dec 1999
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    Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4191

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    1. Cowell, Frank A & Victoria-Feser, Maria-Pia, 1996. "Robustness Properties of Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(1), pages 77-101, January.
    2. Cowell, Frank A & Jenkins, Stephen P, 1995. "How Much Inequality Can We Explain? A Methodology and an Application to the United States," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(429), pages 421-30, March.
    3. Lanjouw, Peter & Ravallion, Martin & DEC, 1994. "Poverty and household size," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1332, The World Bank.
    4. Miguel Székely & Marianne Hilgert, 1999. "What's Behind the Inequality we Measure: An Investigation Using Latin American Data," Research Department Publications 4188, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    5. Shorrocks, A F, 1982. "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 193-211, January.
    6. Michael Hurd & F. Thomas Juster & James P. Smith, 2004. "Enhancing the Quality of Data on Income: Recent Developments in Survey Methodology," Labor and Demography 0412001, EconWPA.
    7. Mookherjee, Dilip & Shorrocks, Anthony F, 1982. "A Decomposition Analysis of the Trend in UK Income Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(368), pages 886-902, December.
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