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Descomposición de las diferencias de fertilidad entre regiones del mundo y a través del tiempo: ¿Importa más una mejor salud que la formación de la mujer?

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  • Suzanne Duryea
  • Jere R. Behrman
  • Miguel Székely

Abstract

(Disponible unicamente en Inglés) Recientemente se ha reavivado el interés en la relación entre las variaciones en las estructuras etarias de las poblaciones y diversos resultados económicos. Esas variaciones son producto de cambios en las tasas de fertilidad y mortalidad que se producen algunos años antes de hacerse visibles en la estructura etaria estándar y que pueden crear oportunidades para desarrollos subsiguientes. Una gran cantidad de países de todo el mundo todavía están experimentando o quizá están a punto de experimentar un descenso de la tasa de fertilidad. En este trabajo primero se definen las diferencias entre las tasas de fertilidad y mortalidad y las proporciones de dependencia correspondientes entre regiones y a través del tiempo. Luego se emplea un panel de 96 países durante el período de 1965 a 1995 para descomponer las diferencias de las tasas de fertilidad entre países desarrollados y en desarrollo, y las diferencias de fertilidad entre 1960 y 1995 en varias regiones en desarrollo y 22 países individuales de la región de América Latina y el Caribe. Estas descomposiciones indican que las principales correlaciones de las diferencias de fertilidad a través del espacio y el tiempo son la escolaridad y la salud de la mujer, y que la primera tiene más que ver con la diferencia de fertilidad entre regiones/países en un momento dado, mientras que la segunda tiene más que ver con bajas de fertilidad en el tiempo. Esto sugiere que es posible que se haya exagerado la importancia de la relación de una mayor escolaridad de la mujer en comparación con la escolaridad de la mujer en la obra publicada, la cual se fundamenta en gran medida en relaciones de inferencia longitudinal de datos representativos.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4183.

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Date of creation: Sep 1999
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4183

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