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Nuevas Actividades Exportadoras en Brasil: Ventaja Comparativa, Políticas o Auto-Descubrimiento?

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  • Armando Castelar Pinneiro
  • Regis Bonelli
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    Abstract

    Este documento examina los hallazgos de Brasil en la exportación de aviones, teléfonos celulares y carne de cerdo. Todos los casos confirman la importancia que tienen el aumento de la eficacia y los costos irrecuperables en la expansión de las exportaciones y llevan a las siguientes conclusiones: la política económica y la ventaja comparativa desempeñaron un papel importante en la aparición de las nuevas actividades de exportación; las economías de escala fueron un factor determinante y crucial de la competitividad; y una marca de fábrica muy conocida ayudó a superar asimetrías de información y a facilitar el ingreso del producto en los mercados de exportación. Los exportadores se concentraron en el diseño, comercialización, investigación y desarrollo y ensamblaje de productos, haciendo de la coordinación con los proveedores un factor importante en sus estrategias. Las políticas públicas tuvieron además una fuerte influencia, en ocasiones involuntaria. Mientras que los gobiernos pueden fomentar los descubrimientos, especialmente ante las fallas del mercado, las políticas no pueden por sí solas generar el éxito de un exportador.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3257.

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    Date of creation: Jul 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3257

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    1. Andrea E. Goldstein & Steven M. McGuire, 2004. "The Political Economy of Strategic Trade Policy and the Brazil-Canada Export Subsidies Saga," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 541-566, 04.
    2. Hausmann, Ricardo & Rodrik, Dani, 2002. "Economic Development as Self-Discovery," Working Paper Series rwp02-023, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    3. Gabriel Sánchez & Ricardo Rozemberg & Inés Butler & Hernán Rufo, 2008. "The Emergence of New Successful Export Activities in Argentina: Self-Discovery, Knowledge Niches, or Barriers to Riches?," Research Department Publications 3254, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    4. Feenstra, Robert & Hiau Looi Kee, 2004. "Export variety and country productivity," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3412, The World Bank.
    5. Jean Imbs & Romain Wacziarg, 2003. "Stages of Diversification," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 63-86, March.
    6. Philippe Aghion & Mathias Dewatripont & Jeremy C. Stein, 2005. "Academic Freedom, Private-Sector Focus, and the Process of Innovation," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2089, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    7. Paul M. Romer, 1993. "New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of Trade Restrictions," NBER Working Papers 4452, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. David Hummels & Peter J. Klenow, 2005. "The Variety and Quality of a Nation's Exports," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(3), pages 704-723, June.
    9. Richard Baldwin & Paul Krugman, 1988. "Industrial Policy and International Competition in Wide-Bodied Jet Aircraft," NBER Chapters, in: Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, pages 45-78 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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