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Salud y mortalidad infantil en Brasil

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  • Denisard Alves
  • Walter Belluzzo

Abstract

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) La salud infantil es un aspecto fundamental del programa de políticas públicas de los países en desarrollo. A lo largo de los años se han puesto en práctica numerosas políticas destinadas al mejoramiento de la salud infantil, con diversos grados de éxito. En Brasil, dichas políticas han llevado a una disminución considerable de los niveles de mortalidad infantil durante los últimos 30 años. Sin embargo, a pesar de esa mejora, las tasas de mortalidad siguen siendo elevadas con respecto a los niveles internacionales, y existe una variación considerable entre municipios en Brasil, lo que sugiere que convendría diseñar políticas específicas para cada región. El propósito de este trabajo es investigar los factores que determinan la mortalidad infantil a nivel municipal, así como ofrecer un análisis más detallado tomando en cuenta los factores que inciden en la salud infantil a nivel individual. Para analizar la tasa de mortalidad, se calculan modelos estáticos y dinámicos con datos de panel de cuatro censos que cubren el período de 1970 a 2000. La demanda de atención médica infantil se aborda mediante un modelo de toma de decisiones domésticas, calculado empleando datos antropométricos de la Encuesta de nivel de vida de 1996. Los resultados indican que la salubridad, la educación y el ingreso per cápita han contribuido a disminuir la mortalidad infantil en Brasil y que los efectos son más fuertes en el largo plazo que en el corto. Los efectos fijos vinculados con las características municipales explican en parte la dispersión observada de las tasas de mortalidad infantil. Los resultados del modelo de toma de decisiones se corresponden con los hallazgos del modelo de mortalidad: la educación, la salubridad y la pobreza son los factores más importantes que explican la precaria salud infantil en Brasil.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3188.

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Date of creation: Apr 2005
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3188

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  1. Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2001. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262232197, January.
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  3. Mroz, Thomas A, 1987. "The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 765-99, July.
  4. Kassouf, Ana L & Senauer, Benjamin, 1996. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Education on Malnutrition among Children in Brazil: A Full Income Approach," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(4), pages 817-38, July.
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  10. Behrman, Jere R. & Wolfe, Barbara L., 1984. "More evidence on nutrition demand : Income seems overrated and women's schooling underemphasized," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 105-128.
  11. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  12. Horton, Susan, 1988. "Birth Order and Child Nutritional Status: Evidence from the Philippines," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(2), pages 341-54, January.
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