Output Diversification Among Small-Scale Hillside Farmers In El Salvador
AbstractIn this study we analyze the degree of output diversification (anything produced in the farm that is not a subsistence crop, i.e., corn or beans) among 520 hillside farmers in El Salvador. Half of those farmers have participated in the Environmental Program for El Salvador (PAES) implemented between 1998 and 2005. This study is an ex-post evaluation of PAES for which there was no baseline and no randomized control group. Therefore, quasi-experimental techniques were applied to select the treatment and comparison groups after the intervention occurred. Matching techniques were employed to construct a comparison group that resembles the treatment group based on observed characteristics while statistical controls were applied to measure differences on diversification for the treatment group at two points in time (2002 and 2005) and between the treatment and comparison groups at a given point in time (2005), allowing for before-after and with-without comparisons. Count regression models are used to econometrically estimate diversification, while Probit models evaluate factors associated with disadoption of a diversified cropping system over the 2002-2005 period. Overall, more diversified farm plans are positively associated with farm size, schooling, participation in communal organizations, and with the frequency of extension visits, which captures the PAES intervention. Also, farmers involved with PAES have significantly increased the number of agricultural activities in their farms between 2002 and 2005. The Probit model estimated to examine disadoption indicates that schooling, frequency of extension visits, erosion perception and participation in communal organizations are significant contributors to reducing the probability of disadoption of diversification. In turn, disadoption is significantly associated with farm size and land tenure.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE) in its series OVE Working Papers with number 1706.
Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- H50 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - General
- O38 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Boris E. Bravo-Ureta & Daniel Solís & Horacio Cocchi & Ricardo E. Quiroga, 2006. "The impact of soil conservation and output diversification on farm income in Central American hillside farming," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(3), pages 267-276, November.
- Albert N. Link & David Paton & Donald S. Siegel, 2003.
"An Econometric Analysis of Trends in Research Joint Venture Activity,"
Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics
0305, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
- Albert N. Link & David Paton & Donald S. Siegel, 2005. "An econometric analysis of trends in research joint venture activity," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 149-158.
- Bierens,Herman J., 2005.
"Introduction to the Mathematical and Statistical Foundations of Econometrics,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521834315, October.
- Bierens,Herman J., 2005. "Introduction to the Mathematical and Statistical Foundations of Econometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521542241, October.
- Awudu Abdulai & Wallace E. Huffman, 2005. "The Diffusion of New Agricultural Technologies: The Case of Crossbred-Cow Technology in Tanzania," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(3), pages 645-659.
- Perron, P. & Bai, J., 1995.
"Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes,"
Cahiers de recherche
9552, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
- Perron, P. & Bai, J., 1995. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Cahiers de recherche 9552, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Neill, Sean P & Lee, David R, 2001. "Explaining the Adoption and Disadoption of Sustainable Agriculture: The Case of Cover Crops in Northern Honduras," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 49(4), pages 793-820, July.
- Faria, Ana & Fenn, Paul & Bruce, Alistair, 2003. " A Count Data Model of Technology Adoption," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 63-79, January.
- Pingali, Prabhu L. & Rosegrant, Mark W., 1995. "Agricultural commercialization and diversification: processes and policies," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 171-185, June.
- Blackman, Allen & Kildegaard, Arne, 2003.
"Clean Technological Change in Developing-Country Industrial Clusters: Mexican Leather Tanning,"
dp-03-12-rev, Resources For the Future.
- Allen Blackman & Arne Kildegaard, 2010. "Clean technological change in developing-country industrial clusters: Mexican leather tanning," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 12(3), pages 115-132, September.
- Quiroz, Jorge A. & Valdes, Alberto, 1995.
"Agricultural diversification and policy reform,"
Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 245-255, June.
- Bergeron, Gilles & Pender, John L., 1999. "Determinants of land use change: evidence from a community study in Honduras," EPTD discussion papers 46, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Timothy Besley & Robin Burgess, 2003. "Halving Global Poverty," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(3), pages 3-22, Summer.
- Hellerstein, Daniel & Mendelsohn, Robert, 1993. "A Theoretical Foundation for Count Data Models," MPRA Paper 25265, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Abdulai, Awudu & Huffman, Wallace, 2007. "The Diffusion of New Agricultural Technologies: The Case of Crossbreeding Technology in Tanzania," Staff General Research Papers 12785, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Lau, Lawrence J. & Jamison, Dean T. & Louat, Frederic F., 1991. "Education and productivity in developing countries : an aggregate production function approach," Policy Research Working Paper Series 612, The World Bank.
- Weiss, Christoph R. & Briglauer, Wolfgang, 2000.
"Determinants and Dynamics of Farm Diversification,"
FE Working Papers
0002, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Food Economics and Consumption Studies.
- Weiss, Christoph R. & Briglauer, Wolfgang, 2002. "Determinants and Dynamics of Farm Diversification," 2002 International Congress, August 28-31, 2002, Zaragoza, Spain 24929, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Arellanes, Peter & Lee, David R., 2003. "The Determinants Of Adoption Of Sustainable Agriculture Technologies: Evidence From The Hillsides Of Honduras," 2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa 25826, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Boris Bravo & Horacio Cocchi & Daniel Solís, 2006. "Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies in El Salvador: A cross-Section and Over-Time Analysis," OVE Working Papers 1806, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
- Glewwe, Paul, 1996. "The relevance of standard estimates of rates of return to schooling for education policy: A critical assessment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 267-290, December.
- Francisca Henriquez, 2009. "Microcrédito y su Impacto: Un Acercamiento con Datos Chilenos," OVE Working Papers 0309, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
- Veronica González & Pablo Ibarrarán & Alessandro Maffioli & Sandra Rozo, 2009. "The Impact of Technology Adoption on Agricultural Productivity: The Case of the Dominican Republic," OVE Working Papers 0509, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Luis Daniel Martinez).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.