Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Evaluating the Impact on Child Mortality of a Water Supply and Sewerage Expansion in Quiro:Is Water Enough?

Contents:

Author Info

  • Virgilio Galdo

    ()
    (Office of Evaluation and Oversight at the Interamerican Development Bank.)

  • Bertha Briceño

    ()
    (Office of Evaluation and Oversight at the Interamerican Development Bank.)

Abstract

This paper explores the impact that a water supply and sewerage (W&S) expansion had on child mortality in Quito, Ecuador. Studies have typically estimated the effects of this type of interventions comparing outcome indicators -at the aggregate level- of areas with the facilities and areas that lack them, quite often neglecting systematic differences between treated and non-treated areas. Moreover, at aggregate levels, on the one hand, less comprehensive information may imply greater unobserved and uncontrolled heterogeneity; on the other, heterogeneity within areas may jeopardize identification of impacts. To account for these key observations, we used propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at the individual level. Using indirect methods based on census data we constructed a mortality index at the motherhood level, and calculated five different impact estimators based on the propensity scores. We found that the average impact of the program ranged from 7.2 percent (local linear regression-kernel matching) to 9.0 percent (5-nearest neighbors matching). Matching difference-in-differences estimators also evidenced about an 8 percent reduction in child mortality levels. The reflexive or naïve evaluation for the cross-section would have estimated an average impact of 16.5 percent and the difference- indifferences naïve evaluation would have estimated an average impact of 19 percent, both clearly overstating the intervention's effects. When exploring heterogeneity of impacts, we stratified the sample by quartiles based on expenditure per capita, and surprisingly, no significant improvement among those in the bottom quartile was evidenced in relation to their matched individuals. However, we also observed that even in the poorest quartiles, if a woman had at least primary education, then the household obtained significant gains from W&S interventions. This would suggest the interesting observation that the overall insignificant effect for the bottom quartile was driven by the absence of impact in those who completely lacked education, thus stressing the importance of complimentary private inputs in order to reap the benefits of piped water, as other studies have suggested.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://idbdocs.iadb.org/WSDocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=596806&Cache=True
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE) in its series OVE Working Papers with number 0105.

as in new window
Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:idb:ovewps:0105

Contact details of provider:
Postal: 1300 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20577
Phone: 202-623-1000
Email:
Web page: http://www.iadb.org/ove
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: water supply; sewerage; child mortality; propensity score matching.;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Dehejia, R.H. & Wahba, S., 1998. "Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-Experimental Causal Studies," Discussion Papers 1998_02, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
  2. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 2001. "Does piped water reduce diarrhea for children in rural India ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2664, The World Bank.
  3. World Bank, 2000. "Nicaragua : Ex-Post Impact Evaluation of the Emergency Social Investment Fund," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14956, The World Bank.
  4. Hentschel, Jesko, et al, 2000. "Combining Census and Survey Data to Trace the Spatial Dimensions of Poverty: A Case Study of Ecuador," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 147-65, January.
  5. Wolfe, Barbara L. & Behrman, Jere R., 1982. "Determinants of child mortality, health, and nutrition in a developing country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 163-193, October.
  6. James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1017-1098, September.
  7. Lee, Lung-fei & Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Pitt, Mark M., 1997. "The effects of improved nutrition, sanitation, and water quality on child health in high-mortality populations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 209-235, March.
  8. Behrman, Jere R. & Wolfe, Barbara L., 1987. "How does mother's schooling affect family health, nutrition, medical care usage, and household sanitation?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 185-204.
  9. Borooah, Vani, 2003. "Births, Infants and Children: an Econometric Portrait of Women and Children in India," MPRA Paper 19620, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Cebu Study Team, 1992. "A child health production function estimated from longitudinal data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 323-351, April.
  11. Heckman, James J. & Robb, Richard Jr., 1985. "Alternative methods for evaluating the impact of interventions : An overview," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 239-267.
  12. John Newman & Menno Pradhan & Laura B. Rawlings & Geert Ridder & Ramiro Coa & Jose Luis Evia, 2002. "An Impact Evaluation of Education, Health, and Water Supply Investments by the Bolivian Social Investment Fund," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(2), pages 241-274, August.
  13. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra, 1998. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 261-94, April.
  14. Heckman, James J. & Lalonde, Robert J. & Smith, Jeffrey A., 1999. "The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1865-2097 Elsevier.
  15. Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1982. "Governmental interventions and household behavior in a developing country : Anticipating the unanticipated consequences of social programs," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 209-225, April.
  16. Lavy, V & Strauss, J & Thomas, D & de Vreyer, P, 1996. "Quality of Health Care, Survivial and Health Outcomes in Ghana," Papers 96-20, RAND - Reprint Series.
  17. Menno Pradhan & Laura B. Rawlings, 2002. "The Impact and Targeting of Social Infrastructure Investments: Lessons from the Nicaraguan Social Fund," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(2), pages 275-295, August.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. César P. Bouillon & Luis Tejerina, 2006. "Do We Know What Works?: A Systematic Review of Impact Evaluations of Social Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications 80443, Inter-American Development Bank.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:idb:ovewps:0105. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Monica Bazan).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.