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Inequidad en los aprendizajes escolares en América Latina: análisis multinivel del SERCE según la condición socioeconómica de los estudiantes

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  • Jesús Duarte
  • María Soledad Bos
  • Martín Moreno
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    Abstract

    En este documento se analizan las diferencias en los aprendizajes de los estudiantes latinoamericanos a partir de las condiciones socioeconómicas de sus familias. Utilizando la base de datos del Segundo Estudio Regional Comparativo y Explicativo (SERCE) realizado en 2006, se confirma que existe una relación positiva y significativa entre la condición socioeconómica de los estudiantes y los resultados en el SERCE, tanto para la región en general como para cada país participante en particular. Si esta relación se descompone en dos niveles --dentro de las escuelas y entre escuelas--, se observa que la condición socioeconómica explica una parte significativa de la variabilidad de los puntajes de la prueba entre las escuelas y una parte mucho menor de la variabilidad dentro de cada escuela. Esta situación es producto de una alta segregación socioeconómica entre las escuelas que acentúa la relación entre la condición socioeconómica de los estudiantes y los resultados de la prueba. Los estudiantes más pobres son penalizados, primero por su condición socioeconómica, y luego por estudiar en escuelas a las que asisten mayoritariamente familias pobres, lo cual profundiza la inequidad en los aprendizajes. Los hallazgos sugieren varios cursos de acción para la política pública, ajustados a los perfiles de equidad educativa de cada país.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank in its series IDB Publications with number 9336.

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    Date of creation: May 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:idb:brikps:9336

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    Keywords: Educación;

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    1. Dougal Hutchison, 2007. "When is a Compositional Effect not a Compositional Effect?," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 219-232, April.
    2. Michael A. Boozer & Stephen E. Cacciola, 2001. "Inside the 'Black Box' of Project STAR: Estimation of Peer Effects Using Experimental Data," Working Papers 832, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
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