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Investment Climate and Employment Growth: The Impact of Access to Finance, Corruption and Regulations across Firms

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  • Reyes Aterido
  • Mary Hallward-Driemeier
  • Carmen Pagés-Serra

Abstract

Using firm level data on 70,000 enterprises in 107 countries, this paper finds important effects of access to finance, business regulations, corruption, and to a lesser extent, infrastructure bottlenecks in explaining patterns of job creation at the firm level. The paper focuses on how the impact of the investment climate varies across sizes of firms. The results suggest strong composition effects: A weak business environment shifts downward the size distribution of firms. In the case of finance and business regulations this occurs by reducing the employment growth of all firms, particularly micro and small firms. On the other hand, corruption and poor access to infrastructure reduce employment growth by affecting the growth of medium size and large firms. With significant differences between firms with less than 10 employees and SMEs, these results indicate significant reforms are needed to spur micro firms to grow into the ranks of the SMEs.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank in its series IDB Publications with number 43618.

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Date of creation: Oct 2007
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Handle: RePEc:idb:brikps:43618

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Keywords: Financial Services; Business Development; SME; investment climate; employment; corruption; regulations; job creation; corporation law;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Almeida, Rita K. & Susanli, Z. Bilgen, 2011. "Firing Regulations and Firm Size in the Developing World: Evidence from Differential Enforcement," IZA Discussion Papers 6006, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Kinda, Tidiane, 2010. "Investment Climate and FDI in Developing Countries: Firm-Level Evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 498-513, April.
  3. Rita K. Almeida, 2010. "Openness and Technological Innovation in East Asia: Have They Increased the Demand for Skills?," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 17(1), pages 63-95, June.
  4. Eric Bartelsman & John Haltiwanger & Stefano Scarpetta, 2013. "Cross-Country Differences in Productivity: The Role of Allocation and Selection," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(1), pages 305-34, February.
  5. Pasali, Selahattin Selsah, 2013. "Where is the cheese ? synthesizing a giant literature on causes and consequences of financial sector development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6655, The World Bank.
  6. Marialuz Moreno Badia & Veerle Slootmaekers, 2008. "The Missing Link Between Financial Constraints and Productivity," LICOS Discussion Papers 20808, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  7. Diagne, Youssoupha S, 2013. "Impact of business environment on investment and output of manufacturing firms in Senegal," MPRA Paper 54227, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Hinh T. Dinh & George R.G. Clarke, 2012. "Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Africa : An Empirical Analysis," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 11959, October.
  9. World Bank, 2011. "Challenges to Enterprise Performance in the Face of the Financial Crisis : Eastern Europe and Central Asia," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2316, October.
  10. Rijkers, Bob & Soderbom, Mans & Loening, Josef, 2009. "Mind the gap ? a rural-urban comparison of manufacturing firms," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4946, The World Bank.
  11. Bartelsman, Eric & Haltiwanger, John & Scarpetta, Stefano, 2010. "Cross-country and within-country differences in the business climate," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 368-371, July.
  12. T. Dinh, Hinh & Mavridis, Dimitris A. & Nguyen, Hoa B., 2010. "The binding constraint on firms'growth in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5485, The World Bank.
  13. Dall'Olio, Andrea & Iootty, Mariana & Kanehira, Naoto & Saliola, Federica, 2013. "Productivity growth in Europe," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6425, The World Bank.
  14. Villa, Stefania, 2010. "Exploring the linkages between investment and employment in Moldova : a time-series analysis," ILO Working Papers 455342, International Labour Organization.
  15. Beck, T.H.L. & Munzele Maimbo, S. & Faye, I. & Triki, T., 2011. "Financing Africa: Through the crisis and beyond," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4758568, Tilburg University.
  16. Campos, Nauro F & Estrin, Saul & Proto, Eugenio, 2010. "Corruption as a Barrier to Entry: Theory and Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 5243, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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