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Openness and Growth: The Long Shadow of the Berlin Wall

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  • Claudia M. Buch

    ()

  • Farid Toubal

Abstract

The question whether international openness causes higher domestic growth has been subject to intense discussions in the empirical growth literature. This paper addresses this issue using the fall of the Berlin wall in 1990 as a natural experiment. We analyze whether the slow-down in convergence in per capita income between East and West Germany since the mid-1990s and the lower international openness of East Germany are linked. We address the endogeneity of openness by adapting the methodology proposed by Frankel and Romer (1999) in a panel framework. We instrument openness with time-invariant exogenous geographic variables and time-varying exogenous policy variables. We also distinguish different channels of integration. Our paper has three main findings. First, geographic variables have a significant impact on regional openness. Second, controlling for geography, East German states are less integrated into international markets along all dimensions of integration considered. Third, the degree of openness for trade has a positive impact on regional income per capita.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW) in its series IAW Discussion Papers with number 31.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: May 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iaw:iawdip:31

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Keywords: openness; growth; German re-unification;

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References

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  1. Sinn, Hans-Werner, 2002. "Germany's Economic Unification: An Assessment after Ten Years," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(1), pages 113-28, February.
  2. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
  3. Stephen Redding & Daniel Sturm, 2006. "The Costs of Remoteness: Evidence from German Division and Reunification," 2006 Meeting Papers 283, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  4. Rodríguez, Francisco & Rodrik, Dani, 1999. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Sceptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 2143, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Harald Uhlig, 2006. "Regional Labor Markets, Network Externalities and Migration: The Case of German Reunification," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2006-004, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  6. Subramanian, Arvind & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2007. "The WTO promotes trade, strongly but unevenly," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 151-175, May.
  7. Görg, Holger & Greenaway, David, 2003. "Much Ado About Nothing? Do Domestic Firms Really Benefit from Foreign Direct Investment?," IZA Discussion Papers 944, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1994. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," NBER Technical Working Papers 0151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Francisco Rodriguez, 2007. "Openness and growth: what have we learned?," Working Papers 51, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  10. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2003. "Institutions, trade, and growth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 133-162, January.
  11. Richard Baldwin & Daria Taglioni, 2006. "Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations," NBER Working Papers 12516, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2000. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 485, Boston College Department of Economics.
  13. Lutz Schneider, 2005. "Ost-West-Binnenwanderung: Gravierender Verlust an Humankapital," Wirtschaft im Wandel, Halle Institute for Economic Research, vol. 11(10), pages 308-314.
  14. Lee, Ha Yan & Ricci, Luca Antonio & Rigobon, Roberto, 2004. "Once again, is openness good for growth?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 451-472, December.
  15. Michael C. Burda, 2006. "Factor Reallocation in Eastern Germany after Reunification," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 368-374, May.
  16. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2003. "Institutions, trade, and growth : revisiting the evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3004, The World Bank.
  17. David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Julia Spies, 2009. "Network and Border Effects: Where Do Foreign Multinationals Locate in Germany?," IAW Discussion Papers 47, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  2. Gabriel Felbermayr & Jasmin Gröschl, 2011. "Within US Trade and the Long Shadow of the American Secession," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 117, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
  3. Heineck, Guido & Süssmuth, Bernd, 2012. "A different look at Lenin's legacy: Social capital and risk taking in the two Germanies," Working Papers 118, University of Leipzig, Faculty of Economics and Management Science.
  4. Gabriel J Felbermayr & Sanne Hiller & Davide Sala, 2008. "Does Immigration Boost Per Capita Income?," Diskussionspapiere aus dem Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre der Universität Hohenheim 300/2008, Department of Economics, University of Hohenheim, Germany.
  5. Werner Smolny, 2012. "Cyclical Adjustment, Capital-labor Substitution and Total Factor Productivity Convergence – East Germany After Unification," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 232(4), pages 445-459, July.
  6. Wolf, Nikolaus, 2008. "Was Germany Ever United? Evidence from Intra- and International Trade, 1885 -1933," CEPR Discussion Papers 6796, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Wendy Carlin, 2011. "Good Institutions are not Enough: Ongoing Challenges of Eastern German Development," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 9(1), pages 28-34, 05.
  8. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Gröschl, Jasmin, 2013. "Natural disasters and the effect of trade on income: A new panel IV approach," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 18-30.
  9. Simplice A, Asongu, 2010. "Financial development, trade openness and financial openness: do income levels matter for developing countries?," MPRA Paper 27441, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Stanislav Cernosa, 2011. "Openness to Trade, Migration and Foreign Direct Investments of the EU," WIFO Working Papers 401, WIFO.
  11. Marta Gotz, 2010. "Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach," Contemporary Economics, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, vol. 4(2), June.

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