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Trade Marks and Market Value in UK Firms

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Author Info

  • Christine Greenhalgh

    (Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre, St Peter's College, Oxford University)

  • Mark Rogers

    (Harris Manchester College, Oxford University)

Abstract

This paper uses a new data set of the trade mark activity of UK manufacturing and service sector firms (1996-2000) to investigate the market value of trade marks. Data on both trade (and service) marks sought via the UK Patent Office (UKTM) and the European Community Office for Harmonisation of the Internal Market (CTM) are available. Firms use trade marks to signal to consumers that the product is of a certain origin, implying consistent quality and reducing consumer search costs, thus increasing customer loyalty. The value of trade marks may vary across firms and industries, depending on such factors as whether or not patents can be filed and the market structure. Equally the costs of trade marks vary between UKTM and CTM applications, being higher for the latter. We analyse Tobin's q, the ratio of stock market value to the book value of tangible assets. We explore the impact of undertaking any trade mark activity and also the effects of increasing trade mark intensity among those who do. The results indicate that stock market values are positively associated with R&D and trade mark activity by firms. We find larger differences between firms with and without trade marks for services than for manufacturing. We also find bigger differences in Tobin's q when the services firm is applying for Community marks, rather than just applying for UK marks. Increasing the intensity of trade marks matters for both manufacturing and services, although at a decreasing marginal rate for manufacturing and only for the years excluding 2000 for services. The rapid fall in the UK stock market in 2000 appeared to negate the benefits of trade marks for innovative services firms.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne in its series Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series with number wp2006n04.

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Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iae:iaewps:wp2006n04

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References

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  1. Hall, Bronwyn H., 1999. "Innovation and Market Value," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9f31v1rw, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  2. Griliches, Zvi, 1981. "Market value, R&D, and patents," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 183-187.
  3. Campbell, John Y & Kyle, Albert S, 1993. "Smart Money, Noise Trading and Stock Price Behaviour," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 1-34, January.
  4. Greenhalgh, Christine & Longland, Mark, 2001. " Intellectual Property in UK Firms: Creating Intangible Assets and Distributing the Benefits via Wages and Jobs," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(0), pages 671-96, Special I.
  5. Iain Cockburn & Zvi Griliches, 1987. "Industry Effects and Appropriability Measures in the Stock Markets Valuation of R&D and Patents," NBER Working Papers 2465, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Kee H. Chung & Stephen W. Pruitt, 1994. "A Simple Approximation of Tobin's q," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
  7. Bosworth, Derek & Rogers, Mark, 2001. "Market Value, R&D and Intellectual Property: An Empirical Analysis of Large Australian Firms," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 77(239), pages 323-37, December.
  8. Hall, Bronwyn H. & Oriani, Raffaele, 2006. "Does the market value R&D investment by European firms? Evidence from a panel of manufacturing firms in France, Germany, and Italy," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 971-993, September.
  9. Kenneth A. Froot & Maurice Obstfeld, 1989. "Intrinsic Bubbles: The Case of Stock Prices," NBER Working Papers 3091, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Block, Joern H. & De Vries, Geertjan & Schumann, Jan H. & Sandner, Philipp, 2014. "Trademarks and venture capital valuation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 525-542.
  2. de Vries, A.G.B. & Pennings, H.P.G. & Block, J.H., 2013. "Trademark or patent? The effects of market structure, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups' IP decisions," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2013-002-STR, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
  3. Graevenitz, Georg von, 2007. "Which Reputations Does a Brand Owner Need? Evidence from Trade Mark Opposition," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 215, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.

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